A grammar of the Telugu language/BOOK FIRST

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ముఖచిత్రం

BOOK FIRST—ON ORTHOGRAPHY.

The Teltjgu language is written from left to right, like English: and the best writing is upright: or sloping a little, (unlike English) towards the left. The words are in general pronounced, (as in Greek) precisely as they are spelt: thus the ear is a sufficient guide in orthography. In the round hand used in books every letter stands separate as in printing. In running hand the letters are shaped differently, and are combined, as in English; the words not being divided from each other. To render the alphabet easy it will be requisite first to explain the principles on which it proceeds.

Many letters have two forms : one appears in the alphabet as a capital or primary, and the other is secondary. Thus , , , are the alphabetical or capital forms of the vowels A, I, U, which are respectively called అకారం, ఇకారం, ఉకారం, Acāram, Icāram, and Ucāram: because cāram is equivalent to letter.

Thus the consonants , , , are Ka, Ga, Cha; the mark «/ above each being the Talacattu or sign of A. కి, గి, చి, are Ki, Gi, and Chi: and కు, గు, చు, are Ku, Gu, Chu. "With this last vowel \3, the */ talacaṭṭu is retained, though it is not pronounced.

The letters , , , have as secondary shapes, Q—, Q, and \, which are written under the line. Thus అక్క akka, అగ్గ agga, and అచ్చ acca: which last is pronounced atsa, or as azza would be sounded in Italian.

The talacaṭṭu, or A, is thus attached to most letters. Thus Ra, da, ta; but some letters write «/ talacaṭṭu and ి gudi, separately. Thus sa, సి si, pa, పి pi.

Ten consonants never use the sign talacaṭṭu: for it is sounded though not written. These are kha, -- gna, ja, -- za, -- jna, ta, na, ba, la, ra. Excepting these, it is not the custom to write any letter, even in the alphabet, without the talacaṭṭu. In modern printing, the Kannadi (or "Cannarese") types , are used; which remove all doubt.

The mark I called జడ jada, or ఒత్తు ottu, or వొత్తు vottu, is a breathing, and being placed under some letters, makes them aspirates. Thus బి Bi, ది Di, బు Bu, దు Du, are not aspirated. But భి Bhi, ధి Dhi, భు Bhu, ధు Dhu, have the aspirate sound.

A circle, o, is in some places used for N or M. Thus అంత is anta, అంబ is amba, పంపుట is pamputa 'to send.' The circle (called సున్న sunna) is usually formed like the English letter o. Thus అంగం is angam. but, for the sake of clearness, the form O is frequently used in this grammar.

As certain consonants have the vowel A "inherent" so the consonant య ya (of which --- is the second form) has the vowel I, inherent. For if written without */ the letter యి is i or yi. Thus పోయి is pō-yi (pronounced pō-i) ' having gone.' వెయ్యి veyyi (ve-i) 'a thousand.' చెయ్యి cheyyi (chē-i) ' the hand.'

The mark -- is called దీర్ఘం dīrgham ; and is the common name for broad ā. Thus కకారదీర్ఘం kakāra-dīrgham signifies (కా kā) the consonant k with ā added.

As I is inherent in y, యీ is yī; sounded as i in machine, or ee in seen.

The letter a is called అకారం acāram or 'letter A' as in Amelia; but the sign */ a is called తలకట్టు talacaṭṭu or crest. The letter I is called ఇకారం i-cāram: but the sign G) I, is called గుడి gudi 'a whirl.' The letter U is called ఉకారం Ucāram: but the sign \) is called కొమ్ము commu ' a horn.' Instead of కారం caram, the word త్వం twam (a word \ikeness as పటుత్వం stoutness, గురుత్వం heaviness) is sometimes used. Thus these three vowels are at pleasure called అత్వం, ఇత్వం, ఉత్వం, atwam, itwam, and utwam.

If two consonants meet, one is written without a vowel, under a a a the other. Thus నక్క, nacca 'a fox.' కుక్క cu c, kukka 'a dog.' బల్లెము a tfB&a b 1 mu, ballemu ' a spear.' గుర్రము gu r mu gurramu 'a 1 r horse.' Here we see that B బ is written without the vowel a; and GU గు has the vowel a written above it, but not pronounced. In గుర్రము the mark l_ is R and comes between gu and ram. This mark shaped l__ or v, » is called క్రారావడి crara vadi.

The letter v, j is used in writing: but in printing it is more convenient to use the ancient forms (_ or J) thus క్ర or క్ర kra. This form is used in inscriptions on some ancient temples; and is retained in many manuscripts, both Telugn and Cannadi.

The letter that stands on the line is pronounced first; then the one, or two, under it. Then the vowel above. Thus ప్ర is pra: and స్త్రీ s, strl, a woman, also written 9C^~°; that is, సీ si with r a i n t and {J r beneath. Thus also ^^i s s that is, Sastri, t 'a learned man.' r

Sometimes a consonant is marked as " silent;" no vowel being attached to it. The silent mark called పొల్లు pollu is cr— or £~ added to the top of the letter instead of a vowel. Thus పృథక్ pridhac (i. e. separately,a part.) Here the mark written above k shows that it is silent. Thus also ల is the letter La; but by adding this sign it becomes ల్ as in the word హల్ hal; meaning a consonant. So అచ్ ach (i. e. a vowel). Thus త ta becomes త్ as in the word అవశాత్ avasSt ' unexpectedly.' The letter స sa becomes స్ as in tlie word తేజస్ tejas 'lustre.' Thus ప or pa becomes ప్ as అప్ ap i. e. water. These are Sanscrit words, and rarely occur in the free dialect.

The letter న Na assumes the form న్ as in the word యింటన్ intan 'in the house;' లోపలన్ lopalan 'within.'

This mark is called నకారపొల్లు nacara-pollu.

The letter ర R when followed by another consonant adds it beneath, as in the word area అర్క ar or sometimes changes places with it and assumes the form న్ thus అకన్ acr. So ధర్మం Dh r m, dharmatn, may also be written ధమర్ం, dh m r m. So కర్త cr carta 'a lord' may be written కతర్ c t r. Thus పూర్వం p r m purvam ' formerly' may be written పూవర్ం, p v r m. Either way the pronunciation is the same.

This mark is called గిలక gilaca (literally a rattle,) from a fancied resemblance in shape) or more usually వలపల గిలక valapala gilaka, which means, "the gilaca on the right hand," i. e. placed beyond the letter.

The letters of the alphabet appear very numerous, but the reason is that a separate character is used for each sound, instead of using the same letter with two or three different sounds, as happens in English.

The consonants also are multiplied and have such a variety of forms, because they use a separate shape for each variety of sound. T has one form and Th another; K has one form and Kh another. And this happens also in the Greek alphabet.

This spelling is easy; as the letters when correctly pronounced, never deviate from the sound given in the alphabet.

But a difficulty (felt by those who have advanced far) arises from the liberty of spelling the same word in various ways. The student should provide himself with the edition, lately printed in the Telugu character, of the Sanscrit Bhagavad Gitu. This will furnish a good key to the character if he already knows the Sanscrit alphabet.

When we have occasion to write Hindu or Mahometan names in English letters, too great precision would be pedantic. It is usual to write Bramin for Brahman, or Bramhan: and Rajahmundry for Rajamahendra-varam.

When a letter is written under the line it is usually larger than if written on the line.

It is not the custom to separate the words. Thus a paragraph looks as if it was all one word. But in printing it will be found easy to separate words, as is done in English.

The mark | is used as a comma; and || as a period. The comma is used at the end of each line in poetry except the last which is marked with the period.

In some Telugu printing, the English comma, semicolon, period and other stops have been introduced with good effect.

A letter is called అక్షరము. An aspirated letter is called ఒత్తక్షరము or జడ్డక్షరము likewise means a syllable. Thus స్త్రీ stri 'a woman' is considered to be ఏకాక్షరము a monosyllable .- lit. one letter.

Unless thoroughly acquainted with the principles of spelling and the variations therein allowed, we shall not be able to find words in the dictionary. The reader must therefore pardon what he may consider a tedious degree of preciseness regarding orthography.

The vowels cannot be correctly pronounced without opening the • mouth wide, looking up, and using a loud tone. Natives complain that the English mumble their words.*

The learner should write the letters on a slate, in a large flourishing style: this is the easiest method of attaining fluency in writing.

THE ALPHABET.

Vowels.

0* W-a Qt &1 £u (ore»ii) £U

అ / ఆ / ఇ / ఈ / ఉ / (ఱ ) ఊ / ఋ / ఎ / ఏ / ఐ / ఒ ఓ ఔ

SO ai 2L> o Sj 5 2» au.

Consonants; (in five classes.)


Class 1st. క ca 3) ఖ kha X గ ga గ gha ఘ. gna. 2nd. చ cha ఛ chha జ ja (Sb^jha ఝ jna. 3rd. త ta థ ద, da $ dha ca na (hard.) 4th. త ta థ tha da ధ dha న na (soft.)

5th. ప pa ఫ pha బ ba భ bha మ ma.

Miscellaneous.

 య   ya    ర   ra     ల    la    వ   va.

^ sa శ sha స sa హ ha క్ష xa.

The dots placed under the letters t \h d dh n 1 and s denote that these letters are Bounded hard. They are sometimes marked with accents, as t' t'h d' d'h n' Y and s'.

Numerals.

n -d 3 M £- 3 O", ~x or r 00, ocj-afo. 123456789 9 10 1850.

The numerals three and seven are perpetually confounded in manuscript.

The first 25 consonants are arranged in sets (called rftfs&o vargamu) having five letters in each : and on arranging these in five lines, we shall observe that the first and third letter in each line, are simple: but the second and fourth are aspirated. For the sake of distinction the consonants that stand in the first column, being g" £f &, eS, ■£, &c, are called *cosS. hard : and X, 8, &, (3, K> &c, in the third column are called $8$ soft. Thus G is the soft sound of k: and P is the hard sound of B. In some places a hard initial is softened: that is, T changes into D; or P into B, &c. Thus d«S» tfa Tammudu ' a younger brother' changes into &:&>&> dammudu, &*$)&> povuta ' to go' becomes aS^^Ai bovuta, *&>&> ' to fall' becomes w£bi> baduta, and ifooHoAj caluguta 'to be' becomes X"ex»d&j galuguta. But a soft letter is never changed into a hard one.

The expressions dentals, palatals, labials, &c, which are used in Sanscrit Grammar are needless here: or belong only to the rules (at the close of the volume) regarding Sanscrit words.

In expressing the sounds in English letters, the spelling used in the works of Colebrooke, Jones, Wilson, and Wilkins is the most convenient.

The rules for spelling, which Native grammarians inculcate, are tediously minute, and widely different from those used in ordinary writing; which they consider beneath their notice; giving rules for the poetical dialect alone. Accordingly their rules are of little use to a foreigner ; and my object being to assist the foreigner, the present grammar is so constructed as to meet his wants: the rules for the poetical dialect are therefore removed from the beginning to the end of the grammar. Indeed, we need notice no rules of permutation but those requisite for finding words in the dictionary.

The alphabet exhibits the capitals or first forms. The secondary form of £} » being «/ this is added to the consonants. In some grammars all the consonants are exhibited without vowels attached: but it seems useless to give forms that are not in use.

Six consonants ojL\D5 -^ £? £x? fi^ ©Jr, gha, pa, pha, sha, sa, ha, use this sign, as here shewn, above the letter; but written without touching it. If they were joined, the letter itself would change; thus, •& ■$ are pa, sa; but s5 $ are va, na.

The sound of £3 A is that used in about, around. Thus the name MuS'jSoa is pronounced Alacananda. "^O Nala, the name of a certain prince, is sounded like the Latin Nulla. ^j-°0 Hari, a name of Vishnu, is pronounced like the English word hurry. OsbSg*? Amara cosha (the-title of a Dictionary) is written Ummuru Koshu by those who prefer that mode of spelling.

In common writing, the letters often take other shapes. Thus over the letters i$, §, Q, ka, ta, ki, ti, we often see the vowel written without touching the consonant.

The nasals are placed at the ends of those classes in the alphabet to which they belong.

All the nasal letters may be changed into O sunna (the sign or contraction for N or M) either when they are followed by a consonant or when they are final. Thus ^o^o grandham * a book' would according to Sanscrit rule be written l*jp^ > ant* tSo?fo angam 'the body' would be written

Regarding Telugu words also, instead of S£ kinda, the spelling in use is §oe. The sound remains unaltered.

In the Devanagari alphabet, as exhibited in Wilson's Sanscrit Dictionary, the appropriate nasal is retained; but in Telugu, as in common Devanagari or Bangali writing, the dot or circlet is substituted. Thus ts^ssr'SS alancaram (ornament) is written BooT'So Jr- v' which form alone is intelligible. This occasionally alters the place of a word in the dictionary.

ON SPELLING.—THE VOWELS.

If a word borrowed from Sanscrit ends in a long vowel, this is generally shortened. cala becomes cala; and "^f> Devi becomes "sfo Dev!. Monosyllables, as sri and (J»; stri retain the long vowel.*

The long (or broad) a fcj" is sounded as in the English words half, hard, laugh. tata, 'grandfather' is sounded as the English pronounce Tartar. s£r»fc> mata 'a word' like the English 4 Martyr.' In ftS-o($o A'ndhra (the learned name for Telugu) the first vowel is long, as though written am. The second shape of a is • as in tata 'grandfather.' This —° is called &>$>£~o (long) and is, added to the letters thus.

  • The short vowel A is written in eight ways in English : with five vowels and three dipthongs: thus (A) Ashore, Amelia, Victoria, Woman, (E) writer, flower, other, (I) stir, Cheshire, (0) London, son, mother, Hertford, (U) gun, cup, until, (IE) soldier, (OU) neighbour, (10) fiction, occasion. The Sanscrit asti and santi, become in Latin est and sunt; the a changing into e, and into u. Many Sanscrit words are identical with Latin. "l6oO santi Bunt, \ Sj-»oo
pravahanti provehunt. But as these instances shew, the Sanscrit Towel A ia convertible into E, I, 0, and U.

ALPHABET.

కా kā ఖా khā గా gā ఘా ghā
చా chā ఛా chhā జా jā ఝా jhā
టా tā ఠా thā డా dā ఢా dhā ణా or ణ nā
తా tā థా thā దా dā ధా dhā నా nā
పా pā ఫా phā బా bā భా bhā మా mā
యా yā రా rā ఱా rā లా lā ళా lā వా vā
శా sā షా shā స or సా sā హా hā క్షా xā

The Vowel ఇ is short I as in 'India.' Thus ఇర్రి irri 'a fawn' ఇల్లు illu 'a house' ఇచ్చి icci 'having given.' The word English is written ఇంగ్లీషు Inglishu and England is ఇంగ్లండు Ingulandu. The ఇ is called ఇత్వం itwam as త్వం twam is the name given to the Vowels only; While caram as అకారం Acaram, కకారం cacaram is common to both vowels and consonantsː the long sound is ఈత్వం itwam. The secondary shape ౨ is called గుడి gudi (like goody) and the long sound is గుడిదీర్ఘం gudi - dirgham. It is sounded i or ee like i in machine, ravine, Louisa. Thus స్త్రీ (a Woman) is stri, or stree. లీల Lila (a comedy) is sounded Leeler. The sign for dirgham or the longer sound is often omitted in Writting.

Added to various consonants this somewhat changes their shapes. Thus

కి ki కీ ki ఖి khi ఖీ khi గి gi గీ gi ఘి ghi ఘీ ghi

Herein We see that instead of adding the accent above, they add the sign CUT0 yi (This consonant having the vowel inherent) Q ri 6 ri

0 li f) II £> li b \i S vi vi § si |> si £>. shi

shi or %sro shi fo si |j or ir0~° si oJ~° hi or

hi £r» hi hi <JU xi JL xi.

It will be observed that some of these letters have two or three forms just as happens in English. In common writing (D H and vi are shaped alike.

Instead of the initial (or capital forms) Q i I they use CtO yt and Qy° y* which however are pronounced simply 1 and J. Thus oa^_iS iccada (here) ow-°2& tdu (age) are written instead of and The initial forms £}, are seldom used unless in poems and dictionaries.

It will be observed that the six consonants cji) gha, ■£) pa, ^) pha, 5S. sha, $ sa, ©j-0 ha, which have the vowel ' a' written separate from them, likewise have the vowel O) (i) written in the same manner separately.

^3 or e© the short vowel U as in Superb, or oo in book. Thus uppu 'salt' puli ' a tiger.' And or is the same vowel long, as u in Lucy, chuse, choose or oo in root, shoot. Thus Gguta ' to swing.'

In common business this is best represented b)' 56; thus Ramoodoo for Ramudu: for in the affairs of ordinary life more precision in spelling would be pedantic*

The form e*9 is constantly used for this vowel, thus uttaravu 'an answer,' is written ea J|6o£); but grammarians assert that this form belongs to R, as will be stated in a future page.

The second forms are \) and VJ0 with which (the sign of u) is used: excepting as regards the ten letters that never use «/. These are f S !!! S)1 i) [9 a O e» which are written $X), 2J> gfO, dX>, r^O, 30J» tW> QEk}' The rest use it as follows:

The short vowel is E short, as in Bella, Betty, periphery. Thus dfS>*S» enumu ' a she buffalo' Telugu or "3r*>?<j Tenugu* (the name of this language) 3^)6*^0 Chenna-Patnam, the original name (still in use) of Madras. l»r»~?> vrase ' he wrote' i6iD~g pallke he spoke.' If such words are written in English characters the addition of h (vraseh, palikeh) will conveniently shew lhat the e is to be sounded as a syllable: not being silent. Thus in Latin bone, tale, male.

The long vowel ^) is e long as in the French words meme, bleme and the Persian words shekh, sher, der; different from the sound given in English to the vowel a in name, or same. Thus &£x> emi ' what' enuga ' an elephant' tene ' honey' ledi 'an antelope' lellu 'antelopes.'

The short vowel a is vulgarly changed into e in a few words. Thus gaddi ' grass' is pronounced geddi, Xo$fot HolfZo. The word "3? vela 'time' is written and pronounced ^sft vySla. These are mere vulgarisms and should be avoided. So ~^«8 nedari 'lout' -$5" leka 'without' leta ' soft' become F'gaO n-yadari, •r*$* 1-yilca, «r>gS 1-yata; while ~£&> veta 'venison' (the common word also for a sheep) becomes ^"g^ and cSr«eo v-yata and yata.

By a similar error, which is universal, the words beginning with ~S or &c, are perpetually written x5~° and G °^ ; thus T3 Ccsjaj to * do is almost invariably written 'ET'cS&eo; and xSooej (to arrive) xJ'Sbej; ^i> a suburb becomes p-yata, "^aj teta 'clear' becomes ^°^*J t-yata. So "*5>& a name (instead of peru) becomes p-yaru. And (as vulgarism is capricious) the contrary happens: thus S'So'o sarlram 'the body' is always written "^Stfo serlrara.

This must be remedied in searching for a word in the dictionary. The correct spelling is uniform: the vulgar forms are devoid of rule;

The letter Y though thus written (the learned say) ought not affect the pronunciation.

The vowels A and E are in vulgar writing used for one another: chiefly in initial syllables. Thus 6&>p&38 enimidi 'eight' is written tSfipsxiS yanimidi; a3?f£ is spelt <*J_£; ofc>»>£3o evvaru becomes ^^5^ yavvaru.

It will be observed that the six letters over which the vowel Q i is written without touching them, likewise have e and e written in the same manner. «

20 ai; "^S^0 ais-war-yam, (prosperity) SD^° aik-yam ' unitedness.' This is sounded as the English sounds of sky. like, heights.

Words beginning with this vowel use the shape 20 in the diction, ary, (See rules for finding words in the dictionary) but in common use this is laid aside, and Wo» ayi is substituted. Thus Sr^jfc I became is written tsou pr°(& ayinanu. Under the vowel Sj it has been shewn that CCO yi is used for i, and in fact does not retain the sound y (which is reckoned as a consonant) thus a-yi-na-nu is pronounced ai-nanu. The second form is „ ;thus ~§ Kai, «p Khai, ^~ * Q Q— A gai, &c.

The forms therefore are as follows:

~§ lp ~R -=?po ^ ~^3 13 -&$ 1?0 ~S ~S ~S CS &c. o— o— o_ a__ o— Q_z Q Q o_ o— a Q2. Q

This vowel must always be expressed by AI in English—never by Y. Thus 2.S)® is nairruti, not nyruti; Jj^siu is paicam, not py-cum; S^*4" >» sain-yam, not synyam. If it is written Y, this leads to uncertainty, as will be seen in the remarks on the consonant Y. For the letter Y is, in Sanscrit and in Telugu, always a consonant; and cannot be used without a vowel following it.

The vowel 2j is o as in Sophia, Police, produced, Moravia, potential, Located. Or the French words folle, monnoie, montagne. The longer sound gj is that which occurs in the Persian words shor, top, mor, or in the French words lorgner, monde, fosse.

These initial forms are found in the dictionary, but are laid aside in common use. "^) vo and "c^J-0 vo being substituted.*

  • The alphabet is called i,^sSr»(LU 6namalu from the words Lo;6abS'S«n'<s6 S;O0^ao8 which is to Hindus what the Bismillah is to Musulmaus పుట:A grammar of the Telugu language.pdf/49 shape ఔ is never used; అవు avu or awn, being substituted; and the V or W being silent as already shewn, this is pronounced aw or au. Thus అవుట awta or avuta (to become) which in the dictionary is Vio auta pronounced like the English word outer. Thus ఔదార్యం audaryam 'generosity' ^^pSP aunnatyam 'loftiness' are commonly written ఔదార్యం, ఔన్నత్యం but the pronunciation remains unaltered. In these Sanscrit words this change is not approved.*

The sign _/ is (very needlessly) retained in combination with au as regards some letters. Thus మౌ mau, యౌ "హౌ hau.

The following are the shapes used, కౌ ఖౌ గౌ ఘౌ చౌ చౌ జౌ ఝౌ టౌ ఠౌ డౌ ఢౌ ణౌ తౌ థౌ దౌ ధౌ నౌ పౌ ఫౌ బౌ భౌమౌ యౌ రౌ లౌ ళౌ శౌ షౌ హౌ క్షౌ

Throughout the grammar I have used the common forme of the initial vowels. For the sake of uniformity in the dictionary, however, monosyllabic forms of ai and au are used. Thus for the words పయిట payita (a woman's veil) and కౌజు cavuzu (a partridge) we must use the spelling పైట and కౌజు. Sanscrit words invariably use the monosyllabic forms. Telugu words use these or the dissyllabic forms at pleasure. Poets adopt whichever form suits the metre; thus కౌగిలి cau-gi-li (an embrace) is a dactyl formed of a long syllable and two shorts. But this may be written కవుగిలి cavugili (four shorts) or by inserting O (that is N,) poets write S^oftS cavungili whereby the second syllable becomes long.

Thus, besides the forms exhibited in the alphabet the vowels take "the following forms; both in poems and in every day business.

  • Few of the Telugus arc able to pronounce the short vowel o in the English words lost, hot, horse, top, God, law, lord, order, which they make లాస్తు, హాటు, హౌసు, టాపు, గాడు, లా, లాడు ఆర్ దరు. thus born becomes barn, God, guard, and former, farmer. In the Telugu newspapers Hong Kong is spelt హంగు, కొంగు Hangu-Kangu. In English neither sound is used unless in some districts as Derbyshire where honey and more arc pronounced in the ancient manner: the sounds are quite different from those of rod and rode. పుట:A grammar of the Telugu language.pdf/51

On the Consonants.

The first 25 consonants, as shewn in the alphabet, stand in five lines, each of which contains four letters besides a nasal.

The four letters which thus form one line are often looked upon as equivalent. This particularly happens as regards initials changed by grammatical rule; which will be explained elsewhere. The "Primary" letters §" US e$ "o& ka, cha, ta, ta, pa, are changed into "Secondaries" and respectively become X £ & £5 30 ga, ja, da, da, ba, or X ^ £S J5 S5 ga, sa, da, da, va.

The sounds of many consonants require no explanation. Thus: g* ka X ga ■& cha 83 ja ^na ^ pa. ai ba 5& ma c«3 ya tf ra O la s5 va ^i sa £j-*> ha are usually pronounced like the corresponding English letters as sounded in Kate, Gate, chase, jackal,' no, put, be, me, you, row, low, vale, sale, hale. The letter G is always hard, thus *~?jtginneh 'a cup' and ~5?tut£> gelucu 'to conquer;' but it is never pronounced soft as in George.

The aspirates are the following.

2p kha as in 'park-house;' 'buck-horn;' ^j) gha as in 'loghouse,' ' stag-horn ;' xf> chha as in ' coach-horse;' JJbp as in 'hedgehog;' 8" tha as in 'cart-horse;' t$ Db, as in 'bid-him;' c$ tha as in 'but-him;' 'not-here;' tf tha as in ' ad-here;' ^3 pha as in 'up-here ;' jf? bha as in ' club house.'

The learned affirm that aspirates are peculiar to Sanscrit, and never should be used in native Telugu words. Thus they wish us to write those words without the aspirates: <S^tf dora 'a master'


marks found in Latin and Greek. In reading verse, the natives use particular chanting tones which to our ear are far from agreeable. It is such as the Romans used, according to Ovid, Arte 3,345 Yel tibi composite cantctur epistolavoce. This passage should have been noticed iu Monk's Life of Bentley, Vol. II., p. 324. See Smollet's remarks (Humphrey Clinker, letter of 13th July,) " Every language has it's peculiar recitative" &c. Natives are accustomed to read in a very loud voice: whenever we find this disagreeable, we merely need remark o&sCSbSo fcS0^3&? "&ej ~7T» T5ks605. The student will find it useful to read the first two sections of the chapter on Prosody.

In some of these combinations the upper letter is different from the lower as (Jj^) because the other combinations (as ggp) are wrong; though they sometimes occur in writing. Native tutors would teach us about a hundred more combinations, though well aware that they are never used.

The pronunciation of some consonants is peculiar. Thus S< cha and 23 ja are sometimes softened into 9a (or tsa, as in hot-sun, Betsy) and z or ds (as in swordsman.) The softer sounds ca and za are peculiar to Telugu, and the harder sounds cha, ja, originate in Sanscrit; no Sanscrit word can use the soft sounds. In the rustic or ancient pronunciation, the Telugue use the soft sounds alone. Thus we frequently hear the words O^chinna, cheppu, 3Su>Xo jilugu, ~SsSai£> jemudu pronounced cinria, c,eppu, zilugu, zemudu.

They in like manner mispronounce Sanscrit words.

The soft sounds are common in Irish, where true, dry &c, are pronounced thrue, dhry, &c.

The nasal sound 21 gna or ng of the first varga or class is like n in the word mignionelle or in opinion. It occurs in the common words ■b>-»kn3^£>!&» vang-mri-lamu ' a recorded deposition or statement.' Like all other nasals, it is'usually changed into O as in the word fc»o>Co angam ' the body.'

The nasal of the second varga or class is gp- and never appears alone: being always written under the letter j, as in the word ST^&tsia jnapacamu 'recollection' and ^^sS» jnanamu 'knowledge' san-jna, 'a sign.' These words are usually though not correctly pronounced T*_gwS'tf» gyapa-camu, "7T"g;SJSc» gya-namu, A\ saugya.

In teaching Sanscrit or Telugu the teacher is obliged continually to make his pupils pronounce harder than they fancy requisite.

The letters cb Ta, Da, and £0 Na, are harder, and the letters |S Ta, £5 Da, and ^ Na are softer, than the sound they have in English*

The hard D is often pronounced nearly like E, thus "SKiytf BezavSda becomes Bezoara.

The distinction between the hard and soft T is perceived in these

[merged small][table]

• The soft D and the soft T are used in modern Greek; as is shewn in Dallsway's Constantinople. పుట:A grammar of the Telugu language.pdf/56 పుట:A grammar of the Telugu language.pdf/57 blamed by pedants for neglecting this refinement. The letter tf is called «S>o*fr5tf and the fetter e» is called awS"^.*

When R is connected with a consonant, with no vowel between, it may be written thus; 5"_5 carta 'Lord' S^sSa carmamu ' act' rfoffSba marmamu a 'secret.' Or the mark £"" called tfea&e>*e>sf is placed beyond: thus S'&e-, Zs&>e-&x>f &t&z-£x>.

The letter R in such places must always be clearly pronounced as is the practice of the Scotch and of the Germans.

In some printed books the silent Jj R is shaped 5". Thus s"<5~# carta. This is chiefly used in foreign words; as X£'5~$5~ Governor, |>;6£<5~ senior, ej"j$g<5~ junior.

Many puref Telugu words have a liberty of adding R to the initial consonant: thus w S, lp ■$, <So, \&^& tova, trova, dova, drova, all mean 'a road.' §**J| cotta (new) may be spelt U"*J* crotta: and §os kinda (under) may be spelt (Joes krinda: thus in English there are words that resemble others in the initial, as cave, crave, gave, grave; tie, try, die, dry; cape, crape, gape, grape; pay, bay, pray, bray; couch, or crouch, babble, or brabble, petty or pretty. Chaucer writes droil for toil, prin for pin, grit for girt, and brids for birds. Spenser writes thrust for thirst (F. Q. 3. 7. 50.) A similar liberty is found in all languages of the Celtic family. In English these are separate words, but in Telugu they are often only various spellings of the same word. For this reason, in the dictionary I have mingled these four classes; as I and J, or U and V were long mingled in the English dictionaries. While the consonants were classed separately, in the Telugu dictionary, this uncertainty regarding the initial often rendered it requisite to search for a word in three or four places before it came to light. By mingling the initials, and excluding the optional E, all the various modes of spelling usually appear in the same page. This arrangement diminishes the size of the dictionary; as formerly two or more forms were inserted; and were explained separately or referred to another page.

  • The obsolete f^Q R and C the semi circle have crept even into some of the books printed under my directions. These letters ought to be set aside and not allowed a place at the compositors table. The letter R is written under the letter, and shaped thus \j (crara»vadi) in the Burmese language. The letter G is also shaped like the form o. The letter H is also similar. Some other characters also are evidently cognate.

t By the "pure Telugu words" (Wtf\ Hooto) or "Radical Telugu" grammarians intend such as are not derived from Sanscrit. This will be explained at the end of the Grammar in remarks on Etymology. The principles of Telugu and Sanscrit spelling are widely different: but as it is requisite to explain both, the reader will observe that such rules as mention one of these languages apply to it alone. The expediency of the present arrangement of the dictionary will be hourly felt in reading: a native assistant or instructor, when asked whether we are to look for the word in question, under the primary initial K or the secondary G; under Ch or J (^&, "^fj and are all the same word, meaning mischief, harm) under T or D; under P or under -ft s or ^ s, is very apt to reply that either spelling is equally good.

The letter O is L as in "3e*j)6 Telugu. The letter s? is the same pronounced harshly, turning the tongue upwards: thus pellu 'names' collu 'birds.' Certain Sanscrit words always use O and others always use

The letter ^ V or W; this is generally sounded V; thus, ■sr°<5b vadu 'that man' vidu 'this man' SasSsSb evadu 'who.' In Sanscrit words it ought to be pronounced V as sScsfif&j vayasu 'age' Sre vina 'a lute;' but in many Telugu words the sound is more like W, thus vatti 'mere' is usually sounded watti. The learned generally use the sound V, the illiterate often use the sound W. In English words the Telugus find V hard to pronounce; usually changing it into W. When it is doubled, as in puvvu *a flower' ^S&S covvu 'fat' S^r5 davvuna 'afar' it is usually pronounced as W, thus pu-wu, co-wu, da-wuna. In common talking the V is often dropt: thus ~£&> veta (hunting, the chase, venison, a goat) is generally changed into ^>*-> yeta and dfi"Aj yata. Elsewhere V changes into O. Thus vacjce (vut-cheh) 'he came,' is pronounced "S>^ Oqcs.

The three letters $ sa sS. sha and -ft sa are as different in sound as the English words sharp, action, soul. They are exemplified in పుట:A grammar of the Telugu language.pdf/60 And it is the custom to repeat after this the vowel that precedes it; thus $S#° swatah is voluntarily, pronounced swataha, xr^S Hannah (a proper name) is pronounced Ram ah a; as if it was written •o»jfc;S-». The word &tq>$x> duhkhamu, pain is pronounced Dukhamu.

The letter \£\ csha, more conveniently expressed by X, is a compound of Jf ka and sS. sha; and is sounded like ct in action, direction, section. Thus *»*. axi 'the eye' AfijSx. parixa ' examination' fJLo'Sx) axaramu 'a letter of the alphabet.'*

The letter X is placed by the native authors at the end of the alphabet. In Wilson's Sanscrit Lexicon it is placed with the letter k.

The Telugus are as negligent in spelling as the English were before the days of Johnson. The words borrowed from Sanscrit are often misspelt. Thus \^ stri 'a woman' is often written [$ Sri 'fortune' and vice versa. The word ^i^o annam' food' is constantly written and pronounced =Sr|J?. The word \_iJ*<5^Fa:«ft Bramhanudu is frequently mispronounced SJ*£5&ffc!fc Biamanudu.

On the Sunna and Half Sunna.

It has already been stated that the circle or cipher o called sunna is used as a substitute for a nasal letter. But it is wrong, though customary, to place it in conjunction with ^ N or 5$) M. When N or M occurs double as ^i^t, 69the vulgar write esojjb or

even fc»oi&, and ^o^.

When sunna is followed by a consonant of the first four classes (varga) it is N; but the remaining letters (pa, pha, ba, bha, ma, ya, ra, la, va, sa, sha, sa, ha, xa,) sound it as M; and it likewise is M whenever it stands at the end of a word. Thus the word Sanscrit t&o^^So is pronounced sams-cru-tam. The Sanscrit words lfos« «So conversation, ■$Q$dS>o doubt, are pronounced sam-vadam, saraSayam. When followed by Y, the sunna is pronounced, nasally: thus i* oe»&S» say-ya-mi, 'a hermit,' •£)o-a<n>X's£» say-yogamu, 'juncture:' here the nasal sound of n is used, as in some French words,

  • The letter X is in Spanish pronounced like lb. Thus Texiera and Xeres are sounded Tesshira and Sheres, or Sherry. Lien, sien, chien, requin. Thus sunna is written full but only half pronounced.

These words are Sanscrit; but in some Telugu words the letter C called the half sunna or semi-circle is used by some grammarians* but in common use the circle alone is used: though it sometimes is pronounced full N, as in the Engljsh"words song, long.

The spelling used in ordinary writing deviates from that approved by the learned. Thus WSoafc atandu is pronounced **84& atadu. The learned assert that the semi-circle is peculiar to verse, and that to use it in prose is absurd.f

The following observations regarding the circle and semi-circle need not be read by beginners. They can only be understood by those who have made some progress in the language.

In some particular words the sunna is inserted after a short syllable. Thus SsSv^ab tammudu may become i}^pt£s tammundu; wewJSo becomes W!»od& a son in-law; S^fi^J^iJj, &*lSotx>ix>$). M. 17. 1. 55. ^jf* or £>?fco;fc an elephant. "SooXo or "StwoHb.

The sunna thus inserted is called 65-"iS?"&(5j.or optional N. Thus tits 13 becomes wtJo*3."3£8 or "SJSoSj^iJ, or *ox>o4->; 8*3 or S^Scfi; rtfS, 5"Sor. Svoid Telugu or "SeuoTfo Telungu, also spelt "3iS>!<b Tenugu or UrfcOKo Tenungu, and even L^ffcHo Tre-' nugu or llJffcoXb Trenungu. M. Virat. 1. 6.

It is inserted before "7T° when that adverbial affix is added to a Root in A. Thus Xt°tv» or -co"**; <5co*"7r« or A&xott'.

And after words of colour. Thus or ^[sotv redly. j6oTT» or jS«o"7r« blackly.

It is sometimes inserted in the verb, in the third person singular masculine of the negative voice. Thus or *2So«£>; e»o£{£> or

  • It is analogous to the sign used in old Latin printing for m or n. Thus gemitu, indignata sub umbras became 'geitu, idignata sub ubras.' In some ancient Latin words the letter N was optional; thus toties or totiens; quoties or quotiens. In his life of Numa, Plutarch mentions Pontifex as written Potifex.

+ The printers of many recent publications seem to be unaware of this rule. In a Telugu Tersion of the Arabian Nights we even find (p. 582) such odd forms as XoO^K ;and similar refinements may be seen in most pages of that book. పుట:A grammar of the Telugu language.pdf/63 s^-ydSS, a-Soir'So; TroSb for TJ*«o. The learned have attempted to reconcile this discrepancy by using' C the semi-circle; they wish such words to be written thus sr»c£Sb, &c5"; tT'cs', TfcsT. In like manner the forms T5c&~kj' cheyaga, s^sST* poeaga, "cr-Tr* raga (doing, going, coming) are commonly written and pronounced TScsfcoT* cheyanga; S^ott* pooanga; T^ott* ranga. This is the older spelling, now disused by the learned. The slightly nasal sound answers to the indistinct N used in French or in the Hindustani language.

This semi-circle is occasionally used in poetry (when written on palm leaves) as a hyphen at the end of a line.*

The semi-circle has never come into general use among the people, and it will be hard to prove the expedience of a refinement like this: which is discountenanced by most manuscripts of the poets and it is entirely unprofitable.

Experience and the advice of sound scholars among the natives has shown me it's futility; but some bramins of ordinary learning uphold this character. They acknowledge that in practice it is laid aside, and that there is no rule in any grammar to vindicate the various ways in which the ardha bindu is inserted.

They insist upon an English pupil acquiring the practice of using the semi-circle: as well as the obsolete R; and leave him to find out,

  • The vulgar often write the long vowel short and substitute the circle for ardha sunna. Thus S'S" vica ' force' is written SoS" vinca, (S^zfeJ is written S^crtSPte and sT^floX" is written for S^BX. S^S" Poca ' a nut' is written ir"ot pBnca, JT*«o becomes r*0«b, S^OT-JTr' for .5%TV*. for &T? tugeh. fcoeo for iiij. Rasica. 1. 62. Though written wrong these words are pronounced right. This error often occurs both in poems and in ordinary letters: and must be observed by the student who otherwise may be misled in the dictionary. On the other hand, sunna is omitted with equal carelessness, thus S5(OSo>5S is written, oco?«o s5, aoj,ejsS» ax)%vsSx> SooSoSb, SoSS "tfoXS, ~&XS, £ro& (go ye) S^S, "5~*cfi Kanchi (a certain town) is written TT" S, !$ ojf^oo the town of Ongole is written KiX^iO and yet no one pronounces the words in the wrong way. Thus o in hasty English writing, letter, teller, litter, tiller, tetter, titter, may easily be understood, though written wrongly. by experience, that both these are unknown to all but pedants. Yet as few students continue the study after acquiring a smattering of Telugu, the emptiness of these instructions generally remains undetected.*

Some modern pedants among the Telugus have attempted (in imitation of some Devanagari printing to abolish the O • thus instead of wotf sfa,-,, and as-c^jSn they affect to write «|sS», and J)sS». This idle whim appears in some recent publications both Sanscrit and Telugu. It is an empty innovation and is not likely to become popular.

From what has been stated the reader will observe that there are (as in some other languages) two or even three modes of spelling: one in daily use and indispensable; this alone is used in the present grammar; the second mode is poetical, and uses particular forms of certain initial and final letters, as 2-s)^«jsx> for (in common spelling) "^fc^ssfco, and ^r°?>§^~ for sr>PiP; and a third, which is pedantic, using the obsolete R and the obsolete semi-nasal.

  • The ordinary teachers are apt to speak to students on some learned subjects which are ill suited to beginners. The tutor should on such occasions be desired to read the following caution.

ss\Oftf)Sos>3r»5b £J-0^sS» U«sS fT'tfo

^oftjO^fJSSS ^!Ctfg«S»"^4S>. In reading any manuscript with a learned Bramin, we shall find him object to the spelling in almost every line: asserting that the ignorance of the transcribers has yitiated the book. But our business is to study the language as it is: to take it as we find it: and errors that do not injure the sense or the metre may safely be left unaltered. Much that is pressed upon our notice as highly Momentous, is in truth mere learned trifling. In poetry a word may sometimes stand part in one line, and part in the next: thus Naki Dwip. 2. 881, **«;&+ s£>8 and in 2, 166, the word Wom8 + S> ' thou becamest' is thus divided..

It will be seen in the chapter on Elision that the final M is often dropped in Sanscrit words. Thus Itfo^o + SS-tfc^ro grandham— arambliam becomes (jCo-ijr'Sojp'o grandh'a-rambham : the Elision being the same as occurs in Latin. But with Telugu words the rule is different; thus St'x'jsm an actress, C5-*-> play, may form iS^rd&r'ij bogam-Sta 'the actress's play' never ^Tr-to, And S"jJr36o e-^ caranamu-anna ' the clerk's brother' may become Ztitt&facaranamanna but cannot become SffrefS^ caran'anna. In Sanscrit in such places a long vowel would be used. But in Telugu this never is allowed.

On Dialects.

Just as happens in English and French, certain forms of expression and of spelling are in common use; others are found only in poems. Most words belong to the common stock; and those peculiar to the higher and lower dialect are altogether but few in number. Such occur even in the verb; thus " shalt not, wilt not," would be the poetical form; " shall not, will not," is the common form, and shan't, won't is the colloquial. Native grammarians condemn and neglect the colloquial forms, which they consider vulgar; though it is easy to prove their occurrence, (as in English) even in the writings of the best authors.

We are aware how totally the rules for Elision used in French,, differ from those of Latin: and the difference between Sanscrit and Telugu in this respect is yet wider.- What is right in one language is, sometimes, wrong in the other.

The rules for elision, permutation and softening initials are required in poetry; but not in the common Telugu we talk or write: and these poetical refinements are not admissible in books written to teach either a language or a creed. Our native teachers would willingly reject common Telugu altogether, and teach us the poetical dialect alone: which they themselves however cannot use in daily talking and writing. In ordinary sentences, as IXoifs&ofej^agrandhamu unnadi 'there is a book' ■sp'p§cojj)|6 vdnilci tslini ' to him I gave it' Tfc«j£»fcS;S'A~» 3j&> chhandamu anaga yemi 'what is Prosody?' they would direct us to spell these words thus; IXo^s&c&^a grandhani'unnadi, -sypSJ^p vanik'istini, ^oaoa^oK^Sa chhandambanangan emi. ThiR mode of spelling would be correct in poetry; but in common life no one uses it; and if we wish to be intelligible, we must use the common dialect. The two dialects differ almost as much as ancient and modern Greek: and were a resident in Athens, to attempt to transact business in ancient Greek (using likewise poetical elision!) he would not easily be understood: nor will the Telugus understand us, unless we speak and,write as they do. These remarks are made in consequence of the publication, by natives at Madras, of some small works on Grammar and on religion, which by using poetical rules are rendered hard to understand.*

On Accent.

The accent accords with the spelling; and is easily understood. In words that consist of short syllables the accent falls on the first, thus T^y®puli 'a tiger' *S padi ' ten' °J?>«*>a enimidi 'eight' * P pa. ni 'work' would in English spelling be pulley, puddy, ennimiddi, punny.

When a long and short syllable come together, the accent falls on the long: thus Om-°~1j iteh 'a spear' "^wssm paoiu * a snake.'

When long syllables come together the accent falls on the last. Thus S^°^3,, kuda 'together.' The following instances of the accent may suffice: and to each is appended an English or Latin word of similar sound. "w& sari (Surrey) 'right.' r5^ sama(summa) 'even.' «4j ata (utter) 'they say.' sfcrf mani (money) ' a jewel.' ^S hari (hurry) 'a certain name.' 5"? cala (colour) 'a ray.' W$ pusi (pussey) 'rheum.' -38 cheri (cherry) 'each, apiece,' sS>& madi (muddy) 'a field.' "So" tera (terror) 'a curtain.' ty® puli (pulley) 'a tiger.' •S'SS'sSso satacam (shuttercome) ' a set of one hundred stanzas.'

  • Writers regarding China have noticed that a similar pedantry prevails there; grammarians considering the language of common life wholly beneath their notice.

In all these we perceive that the vowels are short in both syllables and the accent falls on the first. These words also shew that in English we express the first vowel (short a) sometimes by u and elsewhere by other vowels. But a double consonant as e> or fa or has a different accent; as is perceived in English when the two consonants are in separate words thus; royal-lady, begin-now, unnamed, unnifmbered.

No student I ever saw, though well educated in grammar could pronounce Telugu, Sanscrit, or Hindustani intelligibly on arrival in India. But I acknowledge that the grammatical knowledge conveyed by a tutor in England is of greater importance than pronunciation.

In reading aloud, it is the custom to open the mouth wide and to raise the voice to a high pitch. In fact they inculcate the rules used by music masters in England.*

  • " Those who wish to make themselves understood by a foreigner in his own "language should speak with much noise and vociferation, opening their mouths "wide. The English are in general, the worst linguists in the world; they pur"sue a system diametrically opposite. For example, &c." See Borrow's Bible in Spain, Chapter 1.

The spelling of some Sanscrit words is retained, as ;5-*Q Hari (for sS"»fl S Harih) a name of Vishnu, if 3 Kavi (for ifaS Kavih) a poet, &c. wherein the termination is but slightly altered : these are denominated eJC^5&oS» Tatsamamu,aword more fully explained in the appendix: as well as 8jS\s55S» Tadbhavamu or Permutations. v

After making some progress in Telugu or Canarese, the student should read over those chapters of Sanscrit Grammar which treat of (Sandhi, Vriddhi and Samasa) Elision, augment, and compound words. Doubtless many read Telugu without this: but if we ever make any real progress in the language the student will require the aid of the Sanscrit Dictionary, and cannot even talk or write Telugu with any ease or precision, unless he masters the first principles of Sanscrit orthography.

Hindus and Musulmans usually mispronounce English names: and both the English and French, particularly in names of places, have equally corrupted the pronunciation used in India. The accent is misplaced in almost every proper name.

We call Muh'ammad, Mahomet, and Goo-da-loor, Cuddalore. We change Tee-pu into Tippoo, and Tiruvalikedi (a suburb in Madras) into Triplicane. CanchTpuram gobifotio or ifoQ is changed into Conjeveram; and Tirupati becomes Tripetty; Eranaoor SoB" (J*4r°S3 becomes Ennore. Pudicheri becomes Pondicherry. Bcngi-lu-ru becomes Bangalore: and the name iTOifcra^- Carimanal, (a small insignificant village north of Pulicat near Madras) has been When reading verse the Telugus like all other Hindus use a sort of vociferous chant; (the papists call it "intonation,") and at the md of every stanza they are taught to drawl out the last syllable in a kind of quaver which to our ears is absurd. It is needless for us to imitate this method which a native tutor will lay aside when he finds that it does not please the English ear.

Though the learner must enunciate loudly, he need not do so after he has obtained some familiarity with the sounds.

Contractions.

The common contractions of words, (whether Sanscrit, Telugu, Hindustani or English) used in letter writing and accounts are as follows :—The Hindustani words are marked (H.) పుట:A grammar of the Telugu language.pdf/70 పుట:A grammar of the Telugu language.pdf/72 Thus all masculines are major, all neuters are minor; while feminine words are minor in the singular, but are reckoned as masculines in the plural. In Ordinals as first, second, &c, there are no major forms. Thus ~3o&r* second, s^fS""6 third are used with all genders.

The sun and moon (Surya and Chandra) are always spoken of as (mahat) majors; being the gods Apollo and Adonis. Likewise the names of Dhruva, Sucra and some other stars. Thus in English we still say he for the planet Mars and she for Venus though the word ' star' is neuter.*

This principle pervades every part of Telugu Grammar and will be exemplified in the numerals: of which the original names are neuter. These remarks are necessary to the following rules.

On Numerals.

1 is o called The vowel 2- not being used except in poetry this is spelt ^5" or even ;Hence come the nouns ^)3"*3 (neuter) one; "^aib one man, "?)s"3 one woman. In Sanscrit is the neuter word for one; and is commonly used in Telugu.

2 is -S for which the neuter name is "3ojso; (vulgarly "SosSb becomes 6TMoi& just as Resin is pronounced Rosin.) It is a noun substantive; of which the genitive form is "Bo43. The major form (that is the masculine or feminine form) is St^^, always written Om«bo; Infl. Onss8 and accusative ooo«8p. The word ~&x>!St& (in Sanscrit) \ &$s&£x> is first; andsecondis Bo<§^ which (in Sanscrit) is fi^lcsfisSo. The affix o changes the sense; thus Z>£t& one, 4T* the first. "r3o«b two, 'dog* second. JfoyJSo three, sSxr-F* third, &c. See chapter on the affixes A'E'O'. The sign 6 is usually, with numerals, written thus; third. Vft"6 fourth.

3 is i 5&r»«So (neut.) Ssmnoso (m. f.) <&xr*GT* is third: which (in Sanscrit) is #)ic«S:Sx>. The ordinal names, (first, second, third, &c.) are of the common gender.

After we become familiar with Telugu spelling we are often apt, in transcribing a passage of poetry to change a soft into a*hard, or a hard into a soft initial: elsewhere we unintentionally use or omit an^ aspirate, writing K*3 or ?»|3 'strong' Cr>tS or ^tf 'a master.'

These'changes are not of any consequence, and the natives themselves are equally careless. Thus in English we write connection or connexion, honor or honour, and either spelling is admissible. Some learned men inculcate more exactitude than they themselves use: for by observing their conduct we shall perceive that in writing down from dictation, and in preparing a common letter, they deviate from the principles which they teach. A century ago the English and the French disregarded errors in spelling; and the Hindus are at present equally careless. But unless we know the proper mode we cannot trace a word in the Telugu dictionary: and this consideration has led me to give rules so numerous and so minute.

Further rules on this subject will be placed at the end of the grammar.

On Lengthening Final Vowels.

The three vowels G) when they are final are often lengthened. Thus wj>_ ' sister' becomes in the vocative acca. f F^. 'brother' becomes #0(4 ' father,' 8® mother become &o\h I O father! and 8jb ! O mother! "S\S 'fool' in the vocative case becomes "3^8; and "cssmks 'a proper name,' makes "o~»sS»J&n> O Ramud.5! Of this the proper form xr'sS»-cs» is a vocative, but is used only in poetry. This is a license peculiar to a few words which colloquially retain \J° the long vowel U.

Again the final \) or is changed into fcj" to denote question. Thus a** ' he' becomes sr»"^> He? Sometimes this is used to denote conjunction; thus sj-»{£r»'^f&n> 'He and I.'

And emphasis is marked by adding E/ Thus sr°l£> vadu, 'he;' ■sr-~& vade 'that very man: he himself.' At present it is only requisite to point out that the final vowel is often lengthened without affecting the meaning. This particularly happens in compound words. Thus Wi?_!g"<3c&b acca-jellendlu 'sisters,' is generally spelt ^'g^geM acca-chellelu. This is the conjunction.

In like manner 'together' is generally spelt and the final U in e^fSi becomes er*jSy> 'inside.' These shapes are considered vulgar but are in daily use.

Thus in the writing of illiterate persons we frequently see the final short vowel lengthened; but this should be carefully avoided. No vowel ought to be lengthened unless the sense requires it; for every lengthened vowel is an accent.

On Elision.

"When the short vowels *S G) "Q stand at the end of a word, they are liable to Elision if the next word begins with a vowel. Thus t*i^ + ^^_^ anna + eccada may become ann'eccada, also S9(5^j?f_ IS anna + yeccada 'where is his brother?' fc58 + dsf_Jj adi+eccadabecomes fc*T3{f IS ad-eccada, alsofc'&oSaS' IS 'where (is) it.' This is called Cjsj^o yasruti which sometimes happens to the vowels *S G). But '5r»JSa + dsfjS vadu-eccada has but one shape ■sr»"3?f_{i vad-eccada 'where (is) he?' the vowel \5 or U being always subject to Elision.

It is already shewn that feJsSb atadu * he 'sb^So poe ' went' may (in poetry)becomeW3So'^ajataduvoye. AndwhileTeluguthus alters the initial consonant of the second word, Sanscrit often alters the last consonant of the preceding word; thus ■sr0!- or 56 vac or vaccu 'speech' and vtso 'dispute' becomes syTC^tSo vag-vadam.

Such linking is continually used in verse; but in speaking and writing Telugu (as in French) we continually neglect this elision and change; which is denominated i>o§ sandhi. Thus ■st»ps + C»j 'I gave (it) to him' would in poetry become fpS^P, but in common life such elision is never used, either in speaking or writing, unless as regards certain words. Thus we say esiJaSbs^^jffc, atadu poyenu, he went; neglecting the elision.

The Sanscrit rules for elision and permutation are entirely different from those we use in Telugu; and as they are much used in Telugu, as regards Sanscrit words alone, they will be placed at the end of this grammar for the use of those who have not learnt that part of Sanscrit Grammar.

And as the principal Telugu rules are used in poetry, but much neglected in common life, I have placed them at the end of this Grammar to be referred to when questions arise in Telugu poetry. Among the natives these rules are known to few but poets; who use them (and often break them) in writing verse.

On Changes in the last Syllable.

Many nouns end in Mu. Thus G^ssm, (jfo^sSa, ptfc&sSM, tftf^ «S» which are Sanscrit; and ^ogsfo^ «r°§B£sSK>, a.AysatfB which are Telugu. All these are in poetry occasionally changed into MMU or MBU as Cs^s&d 0r "39"owj, a&oi$a&o or <6otSoso, ^w^i or '{S3^0K0- But the original form in MU, as ^ctfsfco is obvious and requires no rule.

Sanscrit words are classed without reference to this final MU. Thus IsSao, l_Xo$|sk>, pSd*isS», # tfjsfca wherein the final MU is optional: being changeable into^^lo, tS^sSw, zifotxi, 0r" that is, in composition. Thus "ci^ljiia, [Xo$ (ys&sSw. Accordingly in searching for a Sanscrit noun of this class the final mu is to be disregarded.

In the dictionary a doubt may arise. Thus S^ssm, if it is the Telugu word for 'we' retains the s&>: whereas if it is the Sanscrit word for (manas) 'mind' it is printed |sS»* and the Mu not being reckoned, the word is sought for as Accordingly these two words «&(5|sS» * and jfcjSsS» are far removed from each other, in the dictionary : the Sanscrit word is placed next after s&>£gj&i$0; whereas the Telugu word is next after &$&>Tr°w with the interval of a page.

The mark I is used when the added sS» is not reckoned. But when this ^» does not interfere with the alphabetical arrangement I generally omit that mark; which is used only with Sanscrit words.

In printing it has sometimes been inserted erroneously; thus HbL8|tf» which ought to be ?<>L»!Sx>.

On Terminations in NI, and NU.

The letter N (either NI or NU) is added to a variety of words as a sign of the accusative (singular and plural:) as an affix to the first and third persons of verbs, &c. And as this is monotonous there is a liberty of dropping such a termination. Thus the full shapes are పోతిని I went, పోయెను r he went: but in poetry these often drop the final vowel, becoming పోతిన్, పోయెన్* and in common life the syllable is altogether dropped, and we may at pleasure say పోతిని, పోయెను, or else పోతి, పోయె. And the principle applies equally to the accusative, the locative and instrumental cases: to the tenses and to the infinitive or root. In the following instances the sign -fdenotes that the N is used or dropped at pleasure. Accu గుర్రము + ను a horse.

                      కాకి + ని             a crow

Loc ................... ఇంట + ను ........ in a house Inst .................... ఆతని చేత+ ను by him, by his hand Accu. plu .............. ఇండ్ల+ను houses. Past Tensde ..........వుంటి+ని .............I was.

                         వుండె+ను........... he was

A or ........................ పడు+ను............. he may fall.

                          అవు+ను ............ It may be.

The same principle applies to the words లో + ను or lO inside and to the infinitive Aorist, as వుండగా+ను or వుండగన్ or వుండగ while there.

The principle of the mutable N, like siaiv for eiui, (piKoiaiv for <p<Xois; and Sitiev for Emts in Greek: or " an" for " A" in English, is a mere matter of spelling and will easily be understood. But the ancient grammarians have treated it in a manner so obscure that it is hardly possible to comprehend their meaning. They seem to have intentionally surrounded grammar with all that mystery which might produce veneration: and never have attempted to remove those difficulties which the reader, after every explanation, will feel to be great.

The verb is regulated by the same principle, and carries it yet further. poti 'I went' if it adds N becomes potini: but sy*&3 poye, ' he went' if it adds N becomes s^cSsfk pOyenu.

So the verb QoiZoh «to remain' makes in the Aorist JgpS&Sbpk., but in the past tense &0&8p 'I remained.' Thus pwi&k 'to stand' <6eu&b*j ' to speak' jSJfciSJfci' to walk'; the aorists of these verbs are J&exj&ffc; 6ex>5Sa6fS>: :and the other persons, singular and plural, proceed on the same principle. The past tenses are pSfl&p;

Thus the same principle appears throughout; when a noun or its inflection ends in O) the dative is § and the accusative is p; otherwise the dative is & and the accusative is j^j.

The only two words excepted from this principle are f>4) thou and Sfcr°co you, which make the dative in pfi and &t*s3. But these terminate in long, not short vowels. Thus they do not break the rule.

In the words noticed here the vowels I and U occur monotonously in the spoken dialect: in the poetical dialect this inconvenience is lessened by elision and contraction.

BOOK SECOND.

ON THE NOUN.

Ancient grammarians describe the nouns in three Declensions. There are two numbers; singular and plural. The Latin cases will be found to embrace all the shapes of the noun : and this arrangement is preferable to the native mode wherein Telugu grammarians have made fruitless efforts to mould the noun on the Sanscrit model.

In one respect the Sanscrit model is preferable : as discriminating the third case or Instrumental Ablative (By, with) from the Locative case (or 7th case) "In."