ఇంగ్లీషు జర్నలిజంలో తొలి తెలుగు వెలుగు - దంపూరు నరసయ్య/అనుబంధాలు
FORT SAINT GEORGE GAZETTE
Fourth Supplement to Fort Saint George Gazette, Friday evening April 29th, 1864, page 889 "University of Madras. Notice. Matriculation Examination, 1864 Narasaya D, Patchiappa's Central School, Madras - Passed in second class"
Page 890 "Anandachari P, Patchiappa's Central institution. Passed in second class"
సారాంశం : Fort Saint George Gazette 1869 Volume, Page 124
Jury rules of the High Court ప్రకారం Special Jurors గా అర్హులైన 200 ఇండియన్ల పేర్ల జాబితా ఉంది. వీరిలో 1."Kistniah, Teacher, Patchiappa's School, Madras - Residence : Black Town, Dumpore - Hindu" అని, 2. "Parthasarathy Sastry, Dampoor, Clerk, Accountant General Office, Madras, Residence: Triplicane, Hindu" అని నరసయ్య అన్నల ఇద్దరి పేర్లు నమోదయ్యా యి. 1869-70 సంవత్సరానికి వీరు జూరర్లుగా నియమించబడ్డారు. ఆ ప్రకటనలోనే జూరర్లకు కావలసిన అర్హత "Qualified by a knowledge of English language and by being possessed of property of an amount of Rs. 3000/-" అని ఉంది.
సారాంశం : Fort Saint George Gazette, November 15th, 1882
ఈ సంచికలో సబ్ రిజిస్ట్రార్లుగా పనిచేయడానికి అర్హతగల షుమారు రెండు వందలమంది పేర్లు ప్రకటించారు. వీరు సబ్ రిజిస్ట్రార్లుగా మాత్రమే కాక, "Notaries Public" గా పని చేయడానికి అర్హులు. వీరిలో D. Krishnayya అని ఒక పేరుంది. పేరు ప్రక్కన చిరునామా, నివాసం, ఇతర వివరాలు ఇవ్వలేదు. బహుశా ఈయన నరసయ్య అన్న కృష్ణయ్య కావచ్చు.
NELLORE DISTRICT GAZETTE
A. Nellore District Gazette, January 21st 1871, Page 21
"Collector's Office assumed charge - Dampoor Narasaya, Translator, on 4th January 1871." ఈ ప్రకటన తెలుగులో ఇట్లా ఉంది. “కలకటరువారి యిలాకా ఛార్జి పుచ్చుకోవడం - ట్రాన్సులేటరు దంపూరు నరసయ్య, జనవరి తే 4 ది.” B. Nellore District Gazette, June 2nd 1871, Page 256
"Dampoor Narasaya, Translator huzoor leave on medical certificate for 3 months." ఈ ప్రకటన తెలుగులో ఇట్లా ఉంది - "శలవులు-హుజూరు ట్రాన్సులేటరు దంపూరు నరసయ్యకు మూడు మాసములు అశక్తపు శలవు.”
C. Nellore District Gazette, June 10th 1871, Page 320
"D. Narasaya on leave or until further orders." ఈ ప్రకటన తెలుగులో ఇట్లా ఉంది. “మేకల పార్థసారథినాయుడు డి. నరసయ్య సెలవు మీద గైరుహాజరులో ఉండునపుడు తిరుగు ఉత్తరువు అయ్యేవరకు ట్రాన్సులేటరుగా బదులు చూడవలసినది.”
D. Nellore District Gazette, November 25th 1871, Page 542
"Collector's Office - Resumed Charge. Dampuri Narasaya Translator Huzur on 13th November 1871." ఈ ప్రకటన తెలుగులో ఇట్లా ఉంది. "ఛార్జి పుచ్చుకోడం - హుజూరు ట్రాన్సులేటరు దంపూరు నరసయ్య 1871 సం|| నవంబరు తే 13ది."
E. Nellore District Gazette, December 9th 1871, Page 578
"Educational Department Notice. Wanted for the 2nd Division, 4 Deputy Inspectors on salaries of Rupees 100 per mensem. Graduates and under Graduates, who have had experience as teachers, and have a good knowledge of Telugu are requested to apply to the undersigned at Nellore, sending copies of their testimonials. Applications will be received upto the 1st February 1872.
J.A. BOYLE Ag
Inspector of Schools, 2nd Division
F. Nellore District Gazette, February 17th 1872, Page 63
"List of persons eligible to be appointed as Assessors at the Criminal Trials held before the Sessions Court at Nellore for 1872.
Name : Dampuru Narasaya; Place of residence : Mulapet, suburb of Nellore T.Q., Nellore. Occupation : Translator - Collector's Office."
G. Nellore District Gazette, April 13th 1872. Municipal Sheet, Page 18
Minutes of the Proceedings of the Municipal Commissioners for the Town of Nellore at a Meeting held on Wednesday, the 27th March, 1872. Members present :
1) G. Vans Agnew Esq., President 2) S.T. Mc. Carthy Esq. 3) E.E. Lloyd esq. 4) Major S. Galbraith 5) A. Narasimha Rao Pantulu, Vice President 6) D. Narasaya 7) C. Kotaya Chetty 8) B. Veerasamy Iyer 9) K. Jagannadham Chettiyar 10) M. Venkata Subbaiah Shetty 11) Syed Shah Hoossen Khadiri.
పై వరుసలో 6,7,9 నంబరు సభ్యులు, J. Macllian కలిసి ఒక ఉపసంఘంగా ఏర్పడి నెల్లూరు టౌన్లో ప్రాథమిక పాఠశాలల విస్తరణమీద రిపోర్టు తయారు చేశారు. ఈ రిపోర్టుమీద పై సమావేశంలో చర్చ జరిగింది.
H. Nellore Dist. Gazette, Sep.14th 1872, Local Fund Board Sheet, Page 43
సారాంశం : ఆగష్టు 30 నాడు జరిగిన లోకల్పండు బోర్డు సమావేశంలో నరసయ్య డెప్యూటీ ఇన్స్పెక్టర్ ఆఫ్ స్కూల్సు హోదాలో పాల్గొన్నాడు.
I. Nellore Dist. Gazette, May Ilth 1872, Local Fund Board Sheet, Page 23
సారాంశం : పాఠ్యపుస్తకాల పంపిణి గురించి, ఇన్స్పెక్టింగ్ స్కూల్ మాస్టర్లకు అలవెన్సులు కొనసాగించడం గురించి నెల్లూరు, ఒంగోలు డెప్యూటీ ఇన్స్పెక్టర్ ఆఫ్ స్కూల్సు సమర్పించిన ఉత్తరాల మిద చర్చ జరిగింది.
J. Supplement to the Nellore District Gazette, October 17th 1872, Local Fund Board Sheet, Page 52.
సారాంశం : సమావేశంలో ఈ తీర్మానాలు చేశారు.
"Read also the Ongole Deputy Inspector's Letter No. 145 of the 23rd ultimo, submitting a list of prize books required.
Resolved that no more than 2 prizes be awarded to each class - one prize for a class numbering less than 10 boys and 2 prizes for a class numbering more than 10 and that the Deputy Inspector's proposal to award a prize for regular attendance at each school be approved. For the purpose of prize books for each school the sum of rupees 7 is sanctioned for each of the middle class schools and rupees 3 for lower class schools"
K. Nellore District Gazette, May 17th 1873, Local Fund Board Sheet, Page 13 to 15.
సారాంశం : మే 12న నెల్లూరులో జరిగిన బోర్డు సమావేశంలో కోటయ్యసెట్టి, నరసయ్య పాల్గొన్నారు. J.G. Horsefall Esq - Acting President గా ఈ సమావేశాన్ని నిర్వహించాడు. ఈ సమావేశంలో ఒంగోలు డివిజన్లో క్రింది తరగతుల్లో అమల్లో ఉన్న పాఠ్య ప్రణాళికమీద నరసయ్య తయారు చేసిన నివేదిక పరిశీలించబడింది. యూనియన్ స్కూళ్ళ నిర్వహణకు సంబంధించి కొన్ని నిబంధనలు విధించాలని, ఇన్స్పెక్టింగ్ మాస్టర్ల పనివిధానంపై కొన్ని సూచనలు జారీ చెయ్యాలని ఆ నివేదికలో నరసయ్య కోరాడు.
L. Nellore District Gazette, August 23rd 1873, Local Fund Board Sheet, Page 29.
సారాంశం : ఆగస్టు 7వ తారీకున నెల్లూరులో జరిగిన బోర్డు సమావేశానికి కోటయ్యసెట్టి, నరసయ్య హాజరయ్యారు. ఈ సమావేశానికి వేన్స్ ఏగ్ను అధ్యక్షత వహించాడు.
M. Nellore District Gazette, October 18th 1873, Local Fund Board Sheet, Page 87.
సారాంశం : ఇంటిపన్ను వసూళ్ళు నిలిపి ఉంచినందువల్ల మాతృభాషలో విద్యాబోధన జరుగుతున్న స్కూళ్ళలో నెలజీతం 4 అణాలు వసూలు చేయవలసినదిగా బోర్డు మీటింగులో నిర్ణయించారు. నాయుడుపేట, వెంకటగిరి స్కూళ్ళకు ఈ వసూళ్ళనుంచి మినహాయింపు ఇవ్వబడింది.
N. Nellore District Gazette, November 15th 1873, Page 404.
"Notice. Wanted a writer for the office of the undersigned - salary Rupees 15 per mensem, with mileage at 2 annas a mile when on circuit. Only matriculated students, who can write a good hand in English and Telugu, need apply to the undersigned upto 5th December, 1873.
Deputy Inspector of Schools,
Ongole Range, Nellore District."
0. Nellore District Gazette, March 17th 1874, Local Fund Board Sheet, Page 18.
సారాంశం : ఫిబ్రవరి 5వ తారీకు బోర్డు సమావేశంలో మెజారిటీ సభ్యులు ఒంగోలు, కావలికొత్తపాళెం, కావలి, గూడూరు, వెంకటగిరిలో బాలికాపాఠశాలలు ప్రారంభించాలని తీర్మానించారు. ప్రతివిద్యార్థిని నెలనెల అర్ధణా ఫీజు చెల్లించాలని, చురుకైన విద్యార్ధులకు చిన్న చిన్న స్కాలర్షిప్లు ఇవ్వాలని తీర్మానించారు. కోటయ్యసెట్టి విద్యార్థినుల వద్ద ఫీజు వసూలు చేయరాదంటూ తన అసమ్మతిని రికార్డు చేశాడు. నెల్లూరు, అల్లూరు, ఉదయగిరి, కావలి స్థానిక సభ్యులు (అందరూ భూస్వాములు, రెడ్లు) కోటయ్యసెట్టి అభిప్రాయంతో విభేదించడమేకాక, ఆడపిల్లలకు విద్య నేర్పడంలో తమ 'అసూయతను' తెలియచేశారు. వెంకటగిరి యూనియన్ స్కూలు కార్యదర్శిమాత్రం స్కూలుపిల్లల జీతాలు తగ్గించాలని, వెంకటగిరిలో స్కూలు ప్రారంభించాలని కోరాడు. నరసయ్య ఈ సమావేశంలో పాల్గొన్నాడు.
P. Nellore District Gazette, May 16th 1874, Local Fund Board Sheet, Page 27 to 29.
సారాంశం : మే 8వ తారీకున బోర్డు సమావేశం జరిగింది. జిల్లా కలెక్టరు వేన్సు ఏగ్నూ అధ్యక్షత వహించాడు. కోటయ్యసెట్టి, నరసయ్య సమావేశంలో పాల్గొన్నారు. ఉదయగిరిలో ఇంగ్లీషు, తెలుగు, హిందుస్థాని బోధించేందుకు ముగ్గురు అధ్యాపకులతో ఒక ఆంగ్లో వర్నాక్యులర్ పాఠశాల ప్రారంభించమని కోరుతూ, తాసిల్దారు ద్వారా, తనకు నేరుగా అందిన అక్కడి ప్రజల అర్జీలమీద సానుకూలంగా తీర్మానం చేయవలసినదిగా సమావేశంలో నరసయ్య కోరాడు. స్కూలు ప్రారంభించి, ముగ్గురు ఉపాధ్యాయులను నియమించడానికి తీర్మానించబడింది.
Q. Nellore District Gazette, August 13th 1874, Local Fund Board Sheet, Page 41.
సారాంశం : ఆగస్టు 8వ తారీకున జరిగిన బోర్డు సమావేశంలో ‘లోకలు ఫండు స్కూళ్ళకు వొక కుటుంబము తాలూకు విశేషమంది చిన్నవాండ్లు వచ్చే యెడల మామూలు ఫీజులో సగమే తీసుకొనేటట్టు ఉత్తర్వు చేయవలసినదిగా నెల్లూరు డిపిటి స్కూలు యినిస్పెక్టరువారు చేసిన దరఖాస్తుకు సభికులలో అనేకులు వొప్పుకోనందున తోసివేయడమైనది.” అని తీర్మానించారు. ఈ సమావేశంలో కోటయ్యసెట్టి, నరసయ్య పాల్గొన్నారు.
R. Nellore District Gazette, June 12th 1875, Local Fund Board Sheet, Page 40.
సారాంశం : బోర్డు సమావేశంలో కోటయ్యసెట్టి, నరసయ్య పాల్గొన్నారు. నరసయ్య ఒంగోలు రేంజి డెప్యూటీ ఇన్స్పెక్టర్ ఆఫ్ స్కూల్సు హోదాలో లోకల్ ఫండ్ బోర్డు సమావేశంలో చివరిసారి పాల్గొన్నాడు. ఆ తర్వాత ఆయన పేరు బోర్డు సమావేశాలలో కనిపించదు, జిల్లా గెజిటులో ఆయన ప్రస్తావన రాదు.
S. Nellore District Gazette, November 25th 1876, Local Fund Board Sheet, Page 85.
సారాంశం : ఒంగోలు రేంజి డెప్యూటీ ఇన్స్పెక్టర్ ఆఫ్ స్కూల్సు హోదాలో సి.ఎస్. నారాయణరావుపంతులు నవంబరు 11వ తారీకున జరిగిన బోర్డు సమావేశంలో పాల్గొన్నాడు. కోటయ్యసెట్టి ఈ సమావేశంలో పాల్గొనలేదు.
T. Nellore District Gazette, November Ist 1879, Local Fund Board Sheet, No. 7. సారాంశం : బోర్డు సమావేశంలో కోటయ్యసెట్టి అవర్గళ్, ఒంగోలు రేంజి డెప్యూటీ ఇన్స్పెక్టర్ ఆఫ్ స్కూల్సు సి. కుప్పుస్వామి అయ్యరు పాల్గొన్నారు.
U. Nellore District Gazette, February 23rd 1884, Municipal Sheet.
సారాంశం : ఒంగోలు సబ్కలెక్టరు ఆఫీసులో జరిగిన ఒంగోలు మునిసిపల్ కమిషనర్ల సమావేశంలో కోటయ్యసెట్టి పాల్గొన్నాడు. సభ్యులందరూ 'నామినేటెడ్' అని అనిపిస్తుంది. కోటయ్యసెట్టి అధికార హోదా ఏమిటో పేర్కొనబడలేదు.
V. Nellore District Gazette, October 1st 1901, P 408.
సారాంశం : "List of Assessors and Jurors for 1901 as approved by the Sessions Judge and District Magistrate, Nellore" జాబితాలో రాపూరు ఆదినారాయణయ్య పేరు ఉంది. ఆయన వెలుగోటి ముద్దుకృష్ణ యాచేంద్ర బహదూర్ వద్ద వెంకటగిరిలో శిరస్తదారుగా పనిచేస్తున్నట్లు గెజిటు ప్రకటనలో ఉంది. ఈ జాబితాలో సరస్వతీ నరసింహాచార్యులు, టీచరు, వి.ఆర్. హైస్కూలు, నెల్లూరు పేరు కూడా ఉంది.
W. Nellore District Gazette, October 1st 1901, Local Fund Board Sheet, P-1.
సారాంశం : బోర్డు సమావేశానికి హాజరైన సభ్యుల్లో వెంకటగిరి జమీందారి దివాను బి. మహాదేవయ్య ఉన్నాడు.
X. Nellore District Gazette, October 2nd 1905, P 552 - 554.
సారాంశం : భూమిశిస్తు బాకీలకు సంబంధించి "Notice of attachments" ప్రకటనలో నరసయ్య అక్క భట్టారం మీనాక్షమ్మ కోడూరు గ్రామంలోని పొలాల శిస్తు తాలూకు 27 రూపాయల 14 అణాల 8 పైసలు బాకీ ఉన్నట్లు ఉంది.
వెంకటగిరి పంచాయితీ ఆఫీసు జనన మరణ రిజిస్టరులో నరసయ్య మరణం గురించి ఇట్లా నమోదైంది. "SL No. 171 దంపూరు నరసయ్య 60 సం||రాలు తూర్పువీధి, వెంకటగిరి. ఆకస్మిక మరణం 28-6-1909". మరణాన్ని రిపోర్టు చేసిన వ్యక్తి “రాపూరు సీతారామయ్య, తమ్ముడు” అని ఉంది.
నరసయ్య కుమారుడు భట్టారం రాధాకృష్ణయ్య "Family Register" లో తన తల్లితండ్రుల జనన మరణాలను 1928 జనవరి 2వ తారీకు ఈ విధంగా రాసిపెట్టాడు.
నరసయ్య మనుమడు భట్టారం కృష్ణమూర్తి ఇచ్చిన నరసయ్య వంశవృక్షం
అవధానం పాపయ్య (లంగరు పాపయ్య) అలియాస్ రఘుపతి - భార్య సుందరమ్మ
మీనాక్షమ్మ (కుమార్తె) - భర్త రాపూరు రామకృష్ణశాస్త్రులు
అన్నపూర్ణమ్మ (కుమార్తె) - భర్త దంపూరు ఆదినారాయణయ్య
పార్థసారథిశాస్త్రి - కృష్ణయ్య - కుమార్తె (పేరు తెలియదు)
మీనాక్షమ్మ - భర్త భట్టారం శేషయ్య ---- నరసయ్య - భార్య రామలక్ష్మమ్మ
అవధానం పాపయ్య - భార్య సుందరమ్మ
మీనాక్షమ్మ - భ్రమరాంబ (కుమార్తె) - భర్త గన్నవరం కృష్ణయ్య
అన్నపూర్ణమ్మ (కుమార్తె) - భర్త రాపూరు కుప్పాశాస్త్రులు
సీతమ్మ (కుమార్తె) - భర్త చిట్టి ఆదినారాయణ
రామలక్ష్మమ్మ (కుమార్తె) - భర్త దంపూరు నరసయ్య
Ramalakshmamma Birth.......: Death 30-9-1913 భాద్రపద బహుళ 12లు.;
Dampoor Narasaya garu - Birth 1848 or 1849 - Death 28-6-1909 (ఆషాఢ శు 11 లు)"
నరసయ్య భార్య రామలక్ష్మమ్మ. ఈమె కూడా అవధానం పాపయ్య వంశంలో జన్మించింది. ఈమె చదువుకొన్న స్త్రీ అని నరసయ్య దినచర్యల వల్ల తెలుస్తూంది. నరసయ్యను శ్రద్ధగా చూచింది. ఈమెకు, నరసయ్య అక్క మీనాక్షమ్మకు పడకపోవడంవల్ల ఎప్పుడూ కుటుంబంలో అశాంతి నెలకొని ఉండేది. నరసయ్య పోయిన నాలుగేళ్ళకు ఈమె చనిపోయింది.
నరసయ్య తన కుమారుణ్ణి దినచర్యలో బి.ఆర్.కె. అని పేర్కొన్నాడు. పూర్తి పేరు భట్టారం రామకృష్ణయ్య. నరసయ్య ఏకైక సంతానం. నరసయ్య తన కుమారుణ్ణి నాలుగేళ్ళ వయసులో అక్క మీనాక్షమ్మకు దత్తత చేశాడు. తండ్రికి చేదోడు వాదోడుగా ఉంటూ, వ్యవసాయం, కోర్టు వ్యవహారాలు చూచుకోడంలోనే రామకృష్ణయ్య బాల్యం గడిచిపోయింది. తండ్రి దగ్గర రాతకోతల్లో మంచి తరిఫీదు పొంది సలహాలివ్వగలిగిన స్థితికి ఎదిగాడు. మైనారిటి తీరగానే కొన్ని నెలలు కోడూరు గ్రామ మునిసిపు బాధ్యత నిర్వహించాడు. కోర్టు వ్యవహారం పరిష్కారమై పొలాలు స్వాధీనం అయిన తర్వాత, వెంకటగిరి ఆర్.వి.ఎం. హైస్కూల్లో చదువు సాగిస్తూ, వెంకటగిరిలో పీపుల్స్ ఫ్రెండ్ ప్రెస్ నిర్వహించాడు. తనకు ప్రెస్ పనులన్నీవచ్చు. మెట్రిక్యులేషను చదువుతూ, ఇరవై నాలుగో ఏట 'భ్రమరాంబ' పేరుతో ఒక చిన్న నవల రాసి ప్రచురించాడు.1 “భ్రమరాంబ ఇది కేవలము కథ కాదు. అట్లని పెద్ద నవలయుకాదు. సాంఘికమైన నవల. భ్రమరాంబయను నాయిక చరిత్ర ఇందు వర్ణించబడెను2.”
రామకృష్ణయ్య విద్యార్ధిగా ఉంటూ “ప్రజామిత్ర” ప్రచురణ సంస్థ పేరు మీద “ఎ మేన్యువల్ ఆఫ్ మేథమేటిక్స్” పాఠ్యపుస్తకం, మనుచరిత్ర మూడాశ్వాసాలు (నోట్సుతో సహా) ప్రచురించాడు.3
రామకృష్ణయ్య ట్రైనింగ్ పూర్తిచేసి వెంకటగిరిలో రాజా వెలుగోటి ముద్దుకృష్ణ యాచేంద్ర ఉన్నత పాఠశాలలో జాగ్రఫి టీచరుగా స్థిరపడ్డాడు. ప్రైవేటుగా ఆంధ్ర విశ్వవిద్యాలయంలో బి.ఏ. పాసయ్యాడు. ఇంగ్లీషు సాహిత్యం చక్కగా చదివిన పండితుడని, మితభాషి, సౌమ్యుడని పేరు తెచ్చుకొన్నాడు. లౌకిక వ్యవహారాల్లోనూ గట్టివాడు. ముగ్గురు కుమారులను మద్రాసులో చదివించి పట్టభద్రులను చేశాడు. చాలాకాలం హిందూ, స్వతంత్ర, స్వరాజ్య పత్రికలకు విలేకరిగా పనిచేశాడు. జమీందారీ వ్యతిరేక పోరాటం ఉద్దృతంగా జరుగుతున్న రోజుల్లో రాజాలకు వ్యతిరేకంగా రాయడం మనస్కరించక పత్రికా విలేకరిగా మానుకొన్నాడని తెలుస్తూంది. తండ్రి ఉదారభావాలు రామకృష్ణయ్యను ప్రభావితం చేశాయి. స్వాములవార్లు, పాదపూజలు, తీర్థయాత్రలు మొదలైన వాటికి దూరంగా, నిర్లిప్తంగా ఉండేవాడట. రామకృష్ణయ్య 1949లో పుట్టినరోజే, అరవయ్యో ఏట మరణించాడని తెలిసింది.
1. ఈ రచయిత చాలాకాలం క్రితం పుస్తకాన్ని చదివాడు. భ్రమరాంబ నవల 'ప్రజామిత్ర' ప్రచురణ పేర 1912లో పీపుల్స్ ఫ్రెండ్ ప్రెస్, వెంకటగిరిలో ప్రచురించబడింది.
2. బి.వి. కుటుంబరావు, ఆంధ్ర నవలా పరిణామము, పుట 213.
3. P. Subbaramaiah, P. Janakiramaiah, A manual of Mathematics, Part 1 (Experimental Geometry) The People's Friend Press, Venkatagiri Town 1910; అల్లసాని పెద్దన మనుచరిత్రము, ప్రథమభాగము (నోట్సుతో సహా) ప్రచురణకర్త - బి. రామకృష్ణయ్య, పీపుల్స్ ఫ్రెండ్ ప్రెస్, వెంకటగిరి టౌన్, 1910.
“వెంకటగిరి లేట్రాజాగారు నెల్లూరు కాపురస్తులగు హాజీ మహమ్మదు రంతుల్లా సాహెబులవారి కనుకూలముగా వ్రాసి యిచ్చిన మరణ శాసనమును గురించిన యపీల్ వ్యాజ్యమును గురించి కొన్ని విషయములు మరల విమర్శించుటకై పై వ్యాజ్యమునకు సంబంధించిన కాకితములం బంపుడని కోర్టు వారిని ప్రార్ధించఁగా వేసవి సెలవులు ముగిసిన వారము రోజుల లోపల బ్రతిపక్షుల ఖర్చుల నెల్లం గోర్టునందు జెల్లించినంగాని సాహెబులవారి ప్రార్థన ప్రకారం పునర్విమర్శనార్ధమై యందుకు సంబంధించిన కాకితములు పంపబడవనియు, మటియు నపీల్ తీసివేయుటయే కాక మీదు మిక్కిలి యెదిరివాదులగు నిప్పటి శ్రీవేంకటగిరి రాజాగారి ఖర్చులు యావత్తు నచ్చుకొనవలసి యుండుననియు, నున్నత న్యాయస్థానాధిపతులగు సర్టీముత్తుస్వామి అయ్యరుగారున్ను జె. డబ్లియు. బెనట్ దొరగారును సెలవిచ్చిరట. ఇటని పీపుల్స్ ఫ్రెండ్ వాక్రుచ్చుచున్నది.” (పత్రిక పేరు, వివరాలు ఉన్న భాగం నోట్సులో క్రిమిదష్టమయింది-రచయిత)
కళావతి సంపుటం 3 సంచిక 3, మార్చి, 1901.
“ఆంధ్రభాషా గ్రామవర్తమాని. ఇది తెలుగు జిల్లాల పల్లెటూళ్ళ జనులకుగాను సులభశైలిలో నెల్లూరు నుండి దంపూరు నరసయ్యగారిచే ప్రతి శనివారమును ప్రకటింపబడు వార్తాపత్రిక. చందా సం. 1కి 2 పేపర్లకు 1-00. తపాలాకూలి 0-13-00. ఆరునెలలకు నెల్లూరువారు 0-10-0, బయటివారు 1-0-0 యివ్వవలెను. పోషకులకు సం 1కి రూ 10 లు, సహాయులకు రూ 5/- లు. వలయువారు పై వారికి వ్రాసికొనవలెను.” (ఈ ప్రకటన కళావతి ఏప్రిల్ సంచికలోనూ ఉంది)
Classified catalogue of the Public Reference Library - containing of books registered from 1867 to 1889 - Office of the Registrar of Books - old Catalogue, Madras 1894.
1) Page 83, Registration No. 15 - Hindu marriages - being a reprint of those letters upholding Infant marriages among the Hindus - letters on - year 1867 Quarter 3,4; No. of Edition-1; Name of the Author : D. Narasaiya
2) History - Registration No. 41 Historical Sketches of the British Empire in India, compiled from the Illustrated London News of 1857 - Year 1867 - Quarter 3,4 No. of Edition : 1 Name of the Author : D. Narasaiya
3. Page 16 Registation No. 27 Essentials of English grammar. Year 1871 Q4
4. Registration No. 25 Essentials or a First book of English Grammar in easy Telugu - Year 1883 Q2 No. of Edition 2; Author : D. Narasaiah.
My Dear Brother, యిచ్చట అందరు క్షేమం. నగ (ల) పోవిడి రాలేదు అని వ్రాస్తివి. మన వంటి దురద్రుష్టవంతులకు పోయ్ని ద్రవ్యము వచ్చునా? మనకు యిపుడు (నిండా) క్రూరకాలము. సొమ్ముపోయి దిమ్ముపట్టినది అని సామెత చెప్పుదురు. యిప్పటి మనస్థితి ఆ మాదిరిగా నున్నది. స్వామి చిత్తంప్రకారం జరగవలెను. మన కుప్పన్నను మళ్ళ వేశి అచ్చటనే నిలుపుకొనే విషయంలో అందర్కి యిష్టమేను. కాంతమ్మ కూడా నాతో చెప్పి వ్రాయమన్నది. మనమందరం సమీపంలో వుంటే బాగా వుండును అని నా బుద్ధికి కూడా తోస్తున్నది. కలిసి మాట్లాడితేగాని యీ విషయం తేరుగడ కాదు. మన చెంచమ్మకు కొంచెం నెమ్మదిగా వున్నది. మందు యిప్పిస్తున్నాను. కామాక్షయ్య చింతాద్రిపేటలో (.............) రూ|| 10 ల పనిలో చేరినాడు.
పోస్ట్కార్డు మీద చిరునామా :
Dampur Narasaiah garu, Vennelaganti Gopala Rao's House, Nellore.
Uncle యిచ్చట క్షేమం. అచ్చటి క్షేమములు తెలుపుతూ రావలెను. యీ శార్వరినామ సంవత్సర భాద్రపద గురువారం మీనలగ్న (........) ఘడియల మీద చి|| నా తమ్ముడగు రఘుపతికి గర్భాదానం ముహూర్తం జరుగునట్లు పెద్దలు నిశ్చయించినారు. గనుక తాము కుటుంబ సమేతంగా వచ్చి వధూవరులను ఆశీర్వదించవలయు (......... ) ప్రార్థించుచున్నాడను. మా అత్తగారు మీనాక్షమ్మను మీతో కూడా పిలుచుకొని వచ్చి కార్యం జరిగించేది. చి|| దొరస్వామి నెమ్మదిగా యుంటున్నాడు. మనవాండ్లు (....................) కనుక కడమ సంగతులు తెలుప (........).
పోస్టు కార్డు మీద చిరునామా : MRRy. Dampoor Narasiah, Editor of "Gramavarthamani", Residing at Nawabpet, Nellore.
అనుబంధం - 11
నెల్లూరు పత్రికారంగానికి ఆద్యుడు దంపూరి నరసయ్య మరికొన్ని జీవిత శకలాలు
నెల్లూరు పత్రికల పుట్టు పూర్వోత్తరాలను గురించి ఒంగోలు వెంకటరంగయ్యగారు సుబోధిని పత్రిక (1933 ఏప్రిల్ సంచిక) లో రాసిన "నెల్లూరు పత్రికల చరిత్ర” అనే వ్యాసమే ఈ నాటికీ ప్రామాణికాధారం. అందులో ఆయన తొలి నెల్లూరు పత్రిక 'నెల్లూరు పయొనీర్' (Nellore Pioneer) అని, అది “గతశతాబ్దపు టరువదియవ దశకాంతమున” వెలువడినదని; దంపూరి నరసయ్య, నంబెరుమాళ్ళయ్య అనే ఇద్దరు కలెక్టరాఫీసు ఉద్యోగులు పత్రికను ప్రారంభించారని వ్రాశారు. అంటే 'పయొనీర్' 1869 ప్రాంతంలో వెలువడి ఉండవచ్చునన్న మాట. అప్పట్లో పత్రికకు ఏమంత ఆదరణ లభించనందువల్ల కాబోలు సంవత్సరం తిరక్కముందే అది ముగిసిపోయింది.
ఈ ఇద్దరు సంపాదకులను గూర్చి వెంకటరంగయ్య గారిచ్చిన వివరణలివి :నంబెరుమాళ్ళయ్య సబ్మేజిస్రేటుగా ఉండేవాడట. దంపూరి నరసయ్యకు “వార్తా ప్రచారముగ్గుపాలతో నలవడినటులున్నదం”టారు వెంకటరంగయ్యగారు. నరసయ్య పుట్టి పెరిగింది మద్రాసులో ననిన్నీ, ఆయన చిన్నతనంలోనే మద్రాసులో నేటివ్ అడ్వొకేట్ అనే ఆంగ్ల పత్రిక నడిపారనీ, కొంతకాలం తర్వాత వెంకటగిరి చేరి, రాజగోపాలకృష్ణ యాచేంద్రకు ఇంగ్లీషు ట్యూటరుగా ఉంటూ వచ్చారనీ, అటు తర్వాత కలెక్టరుగారు వారి విద్యార్హతలకు మెచ్చి కలెక్టరాఫీసులో ద్విభాషిగా (ట్రాన్స్లేటరు) చేర్చుకొనిరని, అటు తర్వాత స్కూళ్ళ డిప్యూటీ ఇన్స్పెక్టరయ్యారనీ, అది “అస్థిరం కావడం వల్ల” తిరిగి మద్రాసు చేరి 1881 ప్రాంతంలో 'పీపుల్స్ ఫ్రెండ్' (People's Friend) అనే ఇంగ్లీషు వారపత్రిక ప్రారంభించి, దాదాపు 17 ఏళ్ళు కీర్తిప్రదంగా నిర్వహించారని వెంకటరంగయ్యగారు వ్రాశారు. నరసయ్యగారు 1897-98 ప్రాంతాలలో మద్రాసు నుండి నెల్లూరికి తరలివచ్చి, ఇక్కడ 'ఆంధ్రభాషా గ్రామవర్తమాని' అనే పత్రిక స్థాపించారు. పల్లెటూళ్ళలో రైతాంగానికి వారి కష్టసుఖాలు తలపోసుకొనేందుకు ఈ పత్రిక ఉద్దేశించబడి - (ముఖ్యంగా కోడూరు గ్రామం కోసం) పుట్టిన కొన్నాళ్ళకే అంతరించి పోయింది.
ఇవీ దంపూరి నరసయ్యను గూర్చి ఒంగోలు వెంకటరంగయ్య అందచేసిన వివరాలు. పోతే, వాటిని ఆధారం చేసుకొని ఇటీవల మన బంగోరె మరికొంత పరిశోధన చేసి, నరసయ్య జీవిత విశేషాలను కొన్నింటిని జమీన్రైతులో ప్రచురించాడు. పత్రికా సంపాదకుడుగానే కాక, ఒక సంఘ సంస్కర్తగా కూడా నరసయ్య ఆనాటి సమాజంలో నిర్వహించిన పాత్రను గూర్చి బంగోరె విశదంగా పరిశోధించి రాశాడు. వెంకటరంగయ్యగారిచ్చిన ఆధారాలను పట్టుకొని బంగోరె మరింత లోతుకుదిగి పరిశోధించి ఉండకపోతే, దంపూరి నరసయ్య ఆ పాత సుబోధిని సంచికల్లోనే సమాధి అయిపోయి ఉండేవాడేమో. అందుకే దంపూరి నరసయ్యను బంగోరె రీ డిస్కవర్ చేశాడని చెప్పవచ్చు.
అయితే, ఇంతకూ దంపూరి నరసయ్యగారి నెల్లూరు పయొనీరే తొలి నెల్లూరు తెలుగు పత్రిక అనడానికి ఆధారాలేమిటన్నది ఎవరూ చెప్పలేదు. ఆ పత్రిక అప్పుడే గాదుగదా వెంకటరంగయ్యగారు ఆ వ్యాసం రాసే నాటికి గూడా దాన్ని చూచినవాళ్ళు, ఎరిగినవాళ్ళు ఎవరూ లేరు. మరి దానికి సంబంధించిన వివరాలు ఎక్కణ్ణుంచి సేకరించారు? వాటికాధారాలేమిటి? తెలియదు.
సరే అది అటుంచండి. ఇంతకూ ఇప్పుడు చెప్పదలచుకున్నది అదికాదు. నరసయ్యగారి జీవితానికి సంబంధించిన మరికొన్ని విశేషాలు - వెంకటరంగయ్యగారు, బంగోరె చెప్పనివి ఇటీవల నాకు లభ్యమయ్యాయి. ప్రముఖుల జీవితానికి సంబంధించిన ప్రతి చిన్న విషయానికి చారిత్రక ప్రాధాన్యం ఉంటుంది కదా ! ఆ దృష్టితో నెల్లూరు పత్రికల పుట్టుపూర్వోత్తరాలను కూలంకషంగా పరిశోధించబోయేవారికి ఉపకరిస్తుందేమో అనే ఉద్దేశంతో స్వల్పమైనవైనా ఆ విశేషాలను అందజేస్తున్నాను. నరసయ్య జీవితంలో ఇవి ముఖ్యమైన అంశాలు కాకపోవచ్చు. అయినా వీటి ఆవశ్యకత చరిత్రకు యెంతైనా ఉంది. ముఖ్యంగా నరసయ్యగారి జీవిత చరిత్రను పరిశోధించడం అవసరం. ఆ పరిశోధనకు ఈ వివరాలు సహకరించవచ్చు.
నరసయ్యగారి జన్మదినం ఏదో ఎవరూ చెప్పినట్లు లేదు. ఆంధ్రభాషా గ్రామవర్తమాని వెలువరించేనాటికి నరసయ్యగారు 'వార్ధక్యంలో' ఉన్నారని వెంకటరంగయ్యగారు రాశారు. వార్ధక్యం అంటే ఆయన అభిప్రాయం ఎన్ని ఏళ్ళనోకాని, అప్పటికి నరసయ్య గారి వయస్సు 51. నరసయ్యగారి జన్మదినానికి సంబంధించిన ఆధారం ఆయన డైరీలో కనబడుతుంది చూడండి.
"Saturday 25th September, 1896 - My forty eighth Birthday" దీని ప్రకారం నరసయ్యగారి జన్మదినం 1849 సెప్టెంబరు 25 అవుతుంది. తెలుగు తిథుల ప్రకారం ఆ సంవత్సరం మహర్నవమి నాడు తన పుట్టిన దినం అని ఆయన తన డైరీలో రాసుకున్నారు.
తన జీవిత విశేషాలను నరసయ్యగారే చెప్పుకొన్న దాఖలా మరొకటి ఉంది. అసలు నరసయ్యగారు తన స్వీయచరిత్రను రాసుకున్నారట. అది వెంకటగిరిలో ఆయన వారసుల ఇంట్లో చాలాకాలం భద్రంగా ఉండేదట. కొన్నేళ్ళ క్రితం వర్షాలకు తడిసి అది ఎందుకూ పనికిరాకుండా పోవడంతో ఆ కుటుంబీకులు దాన్ని పారవేశారట. ఆ విధంగా ఒక విలువైన గ్రంథాన్ని కోల్పోయాము. పోతే, 1901లో నెల్లూరు డిస్ట్రిక్టు మున్సిఫ్ కోర్టులో జరిగిన వ్యాజ్యం O.S. No. 488 of 1900 లో నరసయ్య ఇచ్చిన వాజ్మూలంలో తన గురించి ఇట్లా చెప్పుకొన్నాడు.....
ఇదీ నరసయ్యగారిచ్చిన సాక్ష్యం. ఇకపోతే, నరసయ్యకు సంబంధించిన జాబులు రెండున్నాయి. డైరీలలోని విశేషాలు మరికొన్ని ఉన్నాయి. వాటి గురించి పైవారం.
(పెన్నేపల్లి గోపాలకృష్ణ జమీన్రైతు 6-7-1979)
దంపూరి నరసయ్య జీవితచరిత్రలో ప్రధానమైన ఘట్టాలను తెలియజేసే రెండు డైరీలు - రెండు జాబులు
నెల్లూరు పత్రికారంగానికి ఆది పురుషుడనదగిన దంపూరి నరసయ్య జీవితానికి సంబంధించిన కొన్ని విశేషాలను గతవారం ముచ్చటించుకున్నాం. ఇక ఆయన ఉద్యోగానికి సంబంధించిన రెండు జాబులు, ఆయన పత్రిక ఆంధ్రభాషా గ్రామవర్తమానిని పేర్కొనే డైరీ ఈ వారం ప్రస్తావిస్తాను. దంపూరి నరసయ్యగారి పేర ఉన్న ఈ రెండు జాబులు రాసిన వారి పేర్లయితే స్పష్టంగా తెలియడం లేదుగానీ ఇద్దరూ నెల్లూరులో పెద్ద అధికారులే అయ్యుండాలి. కాస్త ఓపిగ్గా పరిశోధిస్తే వారు ఎవరైనదీ తేలుతుంది.
మొదటిజాబు 1870 డిసెంబరు 20వ తేదీ నాటిది. నరసయ్యగారు తన దీనస్థితిని గూర్చి ఆ అధికారికి జాబు రాసుకొన్నట్లున్నారు. అప్పట్లో ఆయన వెంకటగిరిలో రాజాగారి కొలువుమాని స్కూల్లో ఉపాధ్యాయుడుగా పనిచేస్తున్నాడు. అక్కడ నుండి నెల్లూరు కలెక్టరాఫీసులో ట్రాన్సులేటరుగా నియమితుడయ్యాడు. ఆ నియామకానికి సంబంధించిన జాబు ఇది. చదవండి.....
రెండవజాబు. ఇది కూడా నరసయ్యగారి దుర్భర కుటుంబ పరిస్థితులను వెల్లడించేది. రెవెన్యూ బోర్డులో ఉద్యోగాన్ని ఆశిస్తూ నరసయ్య రాసుకొన్న జాబుకు శుష్క సానుభూతి, శూన్యహస్తాలతో జవాబిది. ఇది రాసిన ఆంగ్లేయుడి పేరు కూడా స్పష్టంగా తెలియడం లేదు .....
1900లో నరసయ్యగారు మద్రాసునుండి నెల్లూరు వచ్చి ఆంధ్రభాషా గ్రామవర్తమాని అనే పత్రిక ప్రారంభించాడని వెంకటరంగయ్యగారు రాశారు. దానికి సంబంధించిన దాఖలాలు నరసయ్య డైరీలో కనుదగులుతాయి. 1901 జూన్ 25వతేది తన డైరీలో ఆయన ఇట్లా రాసుకొన్నాడు. Sunday - Monday and half of Tuesday engaged in writing leaders, picking up news and writing for the issue of “గ్రామవర్తమాని” for 25th May and 1st June 1901... By Tuesday afternoon work of గ్రామవర్తమాని. of 25th May fully set up.
మే 25, జూన్ ఒకటవ తేది రెండు వారాల పత్రికను ఒకటే పర్యాయం ప్రకటించడం, అదీ ఒక నెల ఆలస్యంగా ప్రకటించడాన్ని బట్టి గ్రామవర్తమాని ఎన్ని ఇబ్బందుల్లో ప్రచురిత మవుతుండినదీ ఊహించుకోవచ్చు.
దంపూరి నరసయ్య జీవిత చరిత్రకు సంబంధించి నాకు దొరికిన ముడిసరుకు ఇది. చివరన ఒకమాట. నార్ల షష్టిపూర్తి సందర్భంగా వెలువరించిన "Some aspects of Telugu Journalism" తప్ప, అందులోనూ ముఖ్యంగా ఆరుద్ర వ్యాసం తప్ప తెలుగు జర్నలిజం చరిత్రను కూలంకషంగా పరిశోధించిన పాపాన ఎవరూ పోలేదు. ఆ కృషి జరగవలసిన అవసరం ఎంతైనా ఉన్నదని మనవి. నెల్లూరు పత్రికారంగంలో ఆద్యుడైన దంపూరి నరసయ్య ఒక్క పత్రికా రంగానికేగాక, సంఘసంస్కరణలోనూ ప్రముఖుడు. కందుకూరు వీరేశలింగంగారి సంఘ సంస్కరణోద్యమంలో నరసయ్య పాత్రకూడా ఉంది. మద్రాసులో వీరేశలింగంగారు ఏర్పాటుచేసిన సహపంక్తి భోజనానికి హాజరైన ఆరుగురిలో నరసయ్యగారొకరు. అటు తర్వాత ఆయన వెంకటగిరిలో ఒక వితంతు వివాహం జరిపినట్లు కొన్ని దాఖలాలున్నాయి. మొత్తం మీద నరసయ్యగారి జీవితచరిత్రను సమగ్రంగా పరిశోధించి గ్రంథస్తం చేయడం ఇప్పటికే చాలా ఆలస్యం అయ్యింది.
(పెన్నేపల్లి గోపాలకృష్ణ, జమీన్రైతు 13-7-1979)
కోర్టు సాక్ష్యం, 1,2 ఉత్తరాలు విడిగా అనుబంధంలో చేర్చబడ్డాయి.
నెల్లూరఁ బత్రికా ప్రచారము
“నెల్లూరు పయొనీర్” (Nellore Pioneer) అనునది పత్రికా ప్రపంచమున నెల్లూరు వెలసిన ప్రప్రథమ పత్రికా పుత్రికగా గన్పట్టుచున్నది. ఇయ్యది గత శతాబ్దపు టరువదియవ దశకాంతమున నంబెరుమాళ్ళయ్య, దంపూరి నరసయ్య యను నిద్దఱాంగ్లేయ భాషా
సాహితీ ధురీణులచే నింగ్లీషునఁ బ్రవర్తింపఁబడుచుండినది. ఈ ప్రవర్తకులిద్దఱును, కలెక్టరు కచ్చేరి యుద్యోగులైనను నా కాలపు సర్కారు కట్టుదిట్టములు నీ కాలపు చట్టముల సరళి లేనందున వారిద్దఱు నా పత్రిక సాగింపఁజాలిరి. ఈ పత్రికా విజయమేపాటిగా నుండెనో నిర్ణయింపఁ దగు సాధనసంపత్తి లుప్తమయినది. ఆ కాలమునను నెల్లూరు మహాజనులీ యుద్యమమున కపేక్షితమగు నాదరాభిమానములఁ జూపనందున సంవత్సరావధిలో నయ్యది నశించెనని యా పత్రికా వ్యాపారమును, సాక్షాత్తుగా నెఱిగిన మాన్యులొకరు చెప్పిరి. దీని ప్రతి యొకటి యైనను లభింపలేదు.
ప్రవర్తక వ్యూహములోని నంబెరుమాళ్ళయ్య సబుమేజస్ట్రీటు పదవి నందియుండెనట. దంపూరి నరసయ్య యన్ననో ఈయనకు వార్తా ప్రచార ముగ్గుపాలతో నలవడినటులున్నది. నెల్లూరు పయొనీ రుదయించుకాలమున వీరు నెల్లూరు కలెక్టరాఫీసులో ట్రాన్సులేటరుగా నుండిరఁట. వీరు పుట్టి పెరిగినది మద్రాసు. చిన్నతనమున మద్రాసులో నుండగా “నేటివ్ అడ్వొకేటు” (Native Advocate) అను నాంగ్లేయ పత్రికను సాగించుచుండిరి. అద్దాని జాలించి కీర్తిశేషులగు శ్రీ వేంకటగిరి మహారాజా రాజగోపాలకృష్ణ యాచేంద్రుల వారికి ఇంగ్లీషు ఉపాధ్యాయులుగా వెంకటగిరి చేరిరి. అచటఁ గొంతకాలముండిన పిదప నప్పటి కలెక్టరుగారు వీరి విద్యాకుశలతకు మెచ్చి వీరిని కలెక్టరాఫీసులో (ట్రాన్సు లేటరు) ద్విభాషిఁగ జేర్చుకొనిరి. అటనుండి స్కూళ్ళ డిప్యూటీ ఇన్స్పెక్టరుగాఁబోయిరి. అదియు అస్థిరమై తిరుగఁ జెన్నపట్నము (జేరి 1881 ప్రాంతములో పీపుల్సు ఫ్రెండ్ అను లోకహితకరమగు ఇంగ్లీషు వారపత్రిక నారంభించి దాదాపు పదియు నేడు వర్షంబులు దానింగీర్తి ప్రదముగా నడిపిరి......
ఆంధ్రభాషా గ్రామవర్తమాని : నెల్లూరఁ బత్రికా ప్రచార ప్రథమాచార్యులగు దంపూరి నరసయ్యగారు 1897-98 ప్రాంతములఁ జెన్నపట్టణము నుండి నెల్లూరికి దిరుగవచ్చి ఇచ్చట స్థావరము కుదిర్చికొని 1900 సంవత్సరమున ఆంధ్రభాషా గ్రామవర్తమానియను నొకచిన్న తెనుఁగు వార్తాపత్రికను ప్రారంభించిరి. ఇది ముఖ్యముగా పల్లెటూళ్ళకును నచ్చటి జనమునకు నుద్దేశింపబడినది. పల్లెటూళ్ళ రైతులనేకురు తమకష్టములనీ పత్రికాముఖమున, దెలుపుచుండిరి. పాఠకాదరము చాలమిని, ప్రవర్తకుని వార్ధక్యము వలనను నియ్యదియు శైశవముననే యంతరించినది. జీవించియుండిన కొలది కాలమును జనోపయోగములగు పలు విషయములిందుఁ జర్చింపఁబడుచుండెను. ఇది ముఖ్యముగా నెల్లూరు తాలూకా కోడూరు గ్రామము కొఱకు పుట్టినది...
(ఆంధ్ర సాహిత్య పరిషద్పత్రిక సంపుటం 10 సంచిక 4 దుర్మతినామ సంవత్సరం, 1922 - పుటలు 238 - 246. ఈ వ్యాసం “నెల్లూరు పత్రికల చరిత్ర" అనే పేరుతో సుబోధిని వారపత్రిక, సంపుటం 2 సంచికలు 18,20 లలో పునర్ముద్రణ అయింది. )
Extract from “Letters on Hindu Marriages"
Three Shastries and one Charriar to wit, Venkannah Shastry, Runganada Shastry, Anantha Rama Shastry and the "Venerable Spiritual Head Sreemut Sankara Charriar" comprising four long heads on the whole, (with very long names, by the way) are "cudgelling their brains" about, two on the pro side and two on the con, with regard to the question, as they are pleased to call it, of “Hindu Infantine Marriages”, and the battle ground chosen by the contending parties in the columns of our contemporary of the Times. It has been well said that it is a very difficult matter to arrive at a very satisfactory decision when "doctors disagree", and as in the present case the gentlemen pitted against each other are men very learned in the law indeed, for more learned than we can ever lay claim to, even if we lived to the age of the oldest postdiluvian patriarch, we are afraid that our interference in this discussion on a point of Hindu Social Science will only earn for us a reputation similar to that of the "young conceited talking spark”, the traveller who would hold that the Chameleon was blue (or some such colour) and no other. Remembering moreover that a man's claretbutt' is liable to be disagreeably tapped' by an uncalled for meddling in the quarrels of others, it is with a very tender regard for our own, delicately formed organ of smell that we venture this morning to enter the arena of contention, which rash act of course necessarily compels us to take one side or the other, and while we shall be welcomed by the one as a friend and ally, by the other party we shall, no doubt, be considered a gratuitous intruder and assailed accordingly. But as we have it on the authority of a great French Philosopher it is a folly to wish for studying the world like a simple spectator", we have made up our mind to run the risk of a broken and bloody nose, (only metaphorically of course) and so enter the lists in behalf of the Shastries on the con side of the question and against the learned and energetic Shastries on the pro side.
The question then is this, are Hindu Females to continue to be given in marriage while they are yet mere children, in accordance with ancient usage, or are Hindus, in accordance with the spirit or more enlightened days, to abolish this custom and follow the more convenient and reason able practice which obtains universally in Europe, and generally among the more civilized communities of Asia; or as the rhyme, less elegantly, but more tersely puts it, are Hindu Females not only — To choose a proper mate – But proper time to marry?
That is the question; and with regard to it, Venkannah Shastry and his friend the Spiritual Head Sreemut Sankara Charriar say that the custom ought to continue in all its purity, while Runganada Shastry and his friend Anantha Rama Shastry say that it ought to be abolished, and so say we. Runganada Shastry and his party maintain their opinion by passages adduced from the Laws of Manu. Venkannah and his party appeal to the same authority in support of their opinion, and thus we see that among our Hindu friends as among ourselves one source is applied to and two opposite conclusions drawn. We among our sects and denominations, apply to one Book and draw various and different inferences, the Hindu Shastries apply to one Code and as various and diametrically opposed are the conclusions they draw. Such being the case, it would have been very difficult to decide who is in the right or who is in the wrong? But that difficulty is overcome by the fact, painful no doubt, but very plain, that Runganada Shastry and his party have applied to the wrong source for evidence in support of their cause. For we do but bare justice to Venkannah Shastry when we admit that the conclusions he has drawn from the quoted passages of Manu are the only conclusions that can be legitimately drawn from them. Further more we must admit that Runganada Shastry, or rather his friend Anantha Rama, has come to a most extraordinarily illogical conclusion with respect to the meaning of the passages he himself quotes, and certainly Vekanna Shastry has turned the tables admirably against his opponent and judged him from his own mouth. So far, so good. We give the opposite party credit for handling their arguments well and ably, so far as those arguments are drawn from their own leading Code of Laws. We will admit then that whether in the original Sanscrit, or in the translation into Tamil, or in the re-translation into English, Manu's Code enjoins the practice of early infant marriages among Hindus, and that this practice has been observed for more than three thousand years now. So far we join issue with the pro-infant marriage party. But we are prepared to contend with anti-infant party, or rather in behalf of them, (for, as far as we have heard, they have not urged this line of argument as yet) we are prepared, we say, to contend that the mere fact that infant marriages are sanctioned and enjoined by an ancient code of laws and that this custom has been observed for a considerable length of time are no reasons at all for its continuance. Rather on the contrary, when the custom is found to be a bar to the progress of civilisation, to the spread of education, to the uprooting of ancient and pernicious prejudices, to the placing of the woman in her proper and true position in life, is it to be discountenanced and abolished than allowed to continue so great a social incubus. We are making, we should suppose, a very trite observation, when we say that customs and usages which served the necessities and requirements of one age become obsolete and unsuited to a subsequent age. If we were to refer all our acts to the customs and usages of our ancestors, we should be left far behind in the race of progress. This has been for ages the bane of the Hindus, this acting more majorum, and this accounts for the stationary character of their civilization. In these enlightened times, the Hindus have shaken off many of their ancient prejudices and baneful predelictions, but there are still many great ones standing prominently forward and making as it were the slow rate of their progress, and among these the custom of infant marriages is not the least. We are sorry that we can afford neither time nor space to extend our observations nor to recount the various and complicated evils which the continued observance of this practice entails upon the people at large. But we may mention one evil, the existence of which is not less an evil to the Hindus than to any other national community. We refer to the large extent to which prostitution, public and private, is carried on owing to the continuance of the practice of infant marriages, combined with that equally pernicious usage, the prohibition of the re-marriage of widows. It is in vain that our Hindu friends would say that the evil is not so great as is made out. The experience of every man who has been long resident in India confirms the fact. In the course of nature, we could not expect any other result but that which it has been our painful duty to point out. Here then is a remedy suggested, and it is the duty of every Hindu who has the welfare, moral and social of his country-women at heart, to join Runganada Shastry and his party and effect the reformation so much to be desired, heedless as to what Manu's or any other obsolete lawgiver's Code may say to the contrary. It is a consummation devoutly to be wished for, let, then, the Hindus cast off prejudice and think anew for themselves.
(Madras Standard, 7th August 1865).
Nellore, 20th December 1870, Sir, No one told me of your insolvency and I should have cared nothing about it if they had. I made Sudarsana Rao write to you (- ) but you failed to take the hint intended to be thus conveyed. I learned from Cotaiah Chetty only yesterday that you had actually quit the Raja and were employed in the school at Vencutughirry and that your services can be spared from the education department. Under these circumstances I have much pleasure in appointing you to the translator's post. I will put your name in tomorrow's Extra Gazette and you should join directly after the holidays. I doubt whether you will like the offer or the work but if you take it, you must make up your mind to regular attendance and some drudgery. I am leaving to Madras and shall not return till after the holidays.
Sd/ Grant (......)
To D. Narasaiah Esq.
A Native on Nuisances—Letter addressed to the Madras Mail by D. Narasaya, around 1875
To The Madras Mail, Madras, Sir,
I beg the favour of your inserting the following letter in the Mail. It will speak for itself. I sent it to a native friend who occupies the position of a Magistrate near where I live. Though a native myself, I have very little faith in native magistrates in the mofussil. Their notions of public duty very frequently get confused with their ideas of private interest, and they would much rather, when not interested in a case, shelve it altogether than study the law and pronounce a just decision. The native Magistrate in the present instance was roused to action only some weeks after this letter, and what did he do? He referred the matter to his superior, the Divisional Magistrate for orders, and that gentleman was pleased to order me to seek a more comfortable piece of residence than the one I occupy as if I could not think of that plan myself. So goes public spirit in the mofussil. I wanted redress of the public grievance and magistrates sapiently direct us to be quiet.
To The Magistrate, Sir,
I have the honour to bring to your notice a great public nuisance that is being here daily perpetrated and which in my humble opinion, is calculated seriously to affect the public health. I allude to the boiling of oil seeds and the extraction of oil under that process in the middle of the busy parts of this place.
The whole of the day and night, these oil mongers (they are Komatees not withstanding) keep pounding the oil seeds to the great annoyance of the neighbourhood and after boiling it, they convert all the rubbish into a species of fuel cakes, which, like those made of cowdung, they employ to feed their fires. The exposure of this filth, and even much of the detail of the process they made use of while extracting oil in this manner, so vitiates the atmosphere, and produce such a noxious stench, that the health of those living near is seriously affected.
But the particular party against whom I complain now is the Komatee living next door to me. This man is eternally boiling and pounding his oil seeds. The uproarious stench issuing from his premises and the unceasing clatter he sets up are so insufferable, and tax the patience of myself and all those who live or come near my house so much that I am fain willing to prosecute the man and appear in court against him if necessary to get rid of the intolerable nuisance.
When I first became aware and convinced of the impossibility of any longer enduring the daily preparations, under my eye of this nuisance, I thought I had only to give notice of it to the police to see put an end to it by the strong arm of the law. How astonished was I, therefore, when I learnt that you took no action whatever, and resolved altogether to shelve the occurrence report to the local police sent at my request! The surprise was all the greater because I heard to my great joy, while at that you were uncommonly active in putting down nuisances of every kind and that you invariably made it a point not to sacrifice your public duty to any feeling of soft heartedness towards those who promote these nuisances.
The nuisance now brought to your notice is, you are doubtless aware, punishable under Section 278 of the Penal Code and has been so frequently punished. Only the other day at Madras, on the information of one of the Town Inspectors, a large quantity of damaged rice on one of the late wrecks at the beach was under the operation of the section, ordered by Mr.T.G. Clark, the Senior Magistrate, to be thrown into the sea and the wreck itself (no doubt worth a considerable sum of money to its owner) was subsequently blown up by gunpowder. This was done in the interest of the public, for where there is a risk of the people's health being affected by the continuance of such nuisances, it is clearly as you are aware, the duty of magistrates to put an end to it at once, all sentimental ideas of pity and tenderness notwithstanding.
As you might be unwilling to interfere in this matter, on account of two considerations which generally in these cases intercept magisterial activity, I trust you will permit me to name and combat them both and show to you the consequences of such laxity on the part of magistrates. These nuisances are regarded as matters of course, and as done in cause of one's daily trade. They are also held as exempt from the operation of the law, on the score of long custom. But what does the law and even commonsense, say to these objections? Law plainly tells us that. while you are always protected in the plying of your trade, so long as it does not interfere with the convenience of the public, the moment that it does so; you are not only civilly, but criminally, liable for your conduct. And this the law pronounces for obvious reasons. On the other hand, no right of prescriptive protection is claimable, when your trade is calculated to affect injuriously the health and convenience of the public.
As for the consequences that will surely follow magisterial softheartedness and laxity in cases of this description, they are as numerous as they are serious. Firstly, the majesty of the law is greatly shaken, the confidence of the public in its might and willingness to help them is then much damaged, the efficiency of public servants comes to be seriously called in question, and the straight course of justice interrupted and led aside to the great scandal of all lovers of order. When once the people come to understand that law is more terrible in its denunciations than in its actual working, who will not but begin to despise it? And when public servants are found altering the course of law and handling its administration in a manner to suite more their private warm feelings of the heart, than the stern dictates of public duty, need I say that it will be hailed as a good day by those disaffected to the law and as perilously unfortunate by all who rest, as upon anchors, on the strict unswerving working of the laws of the realm?
It is certainly unnecessary for me to quote precedents to support the above. But, I may be permitted to refer to one instance that took place lately in Madras, in one of the rice godowns streets on the beach, where for generations together, within the memory of man, there has been a perpetual blocking up of traffic, owing to the great progress of the crowd of purchasers and traders there congregated from sun-rise to sun-set. The Municipal Inspector one day suddenly arrested a number of tradesmen, hauled them up before the Magistrate and had them each fined a round sum for obstructing traffic. And this was upheld by the Government itself at last, in spite of much petitioning, and all the clamour and powerful advocacy of the whole Madras Press and the greater part of the public . My purpose in quoting this now is to point out to you that the law must run its course, and must be maintained by those who have been appointed to administer it setting aside all considerations of pity and sentiment, however much it might do them honour to cherish them in private.
I may add that these trades are all regarded as dangerous, that a very heavily priced license has in all municipalities got to be taken by those who practise them and that even after taking out the license they are permitted to ply them only in remote corners of the town, at a distance from the more populous parts. Though there is no municipality here, I think all these oil mongers should be insisted upon removing their trades to some solitary and distant part of the town. But, however, that may be, there can be no doubt that every individual, who like me, may feel aggrieved by the continuance of this nuisance can fairly claim the interference of the Magistrate, and may call upon him to see that the thing does not go unpunished.
I fear, I have been too prolix and perhaps common place, and shall accordingly conclude with an expression of my readiness to depose on oath to the particulars of my complaint should you deem my appearance in court, in the character of a prosecutor, necessary for bringing the delinquent, in the present instance, to justice. Permit me also to hope that you will kindly excuse the length, or any other defect or irregularity, you may observe in my communication, as I write entirely in the strain of a friend. I have &c &c
Madras, 19th August 1875,
My dear Narasaiah,
Your first letter giving me an account of your terrible domestic troubles was of so painful a nature to you, that though I twice essayed to write to you, I failed. In such a position words are mockery, and I know not what to say except that I sympathise very much with you. Time may heal the wounds but nothing else can.
With regard to your wish to get into the Revenue Board it would be hard to attain unless some gentleman like Mr. Vans Agnew could help you. The promotion you speak of is to join the office, and unless you were disposed to begin low and secure the patronage of some of the native officials in the office, your chances of getting there are very small, I find. The members leave the patronage to the secretary and the secretary to others around him and so it filters down. If you were known to the secretary, of course your chances would be bright. I am sorry that in this matter, I am not able to help you in the least.
With kind regards and much sympathy, believe me.
Very truly yours, Sd/-(...)
The Two Pictures (Editorial - People's Friend - 1" December 1883)
The orator who in his Town Hall speech at Calcutta, a few months ago, abused Babus as sneaks, villains and as being greasy charlatans, at Birmingham very prudently adopted different tactics on the platform. He did not this time go in for wholesale abuse; but he moderated in his sneers and went in also for a little damning with faint praise, to use the poet Pope's sarcastic allusion against his friend Addison, of whom the great bard was envious. We feel amused at the two pictures. Branson of Calcutta is an inferior likeness to Branson at Birmingham. The features are there unchanged, but the attitude is different. Branson of Town Hall, with clinched fist, with uproarious voice, with fierce, gesticulation, with violent garrulity, decorated with abusive epithests - is the Indian Photograph – and Branson before an English audience with his soft sawder, with his Magnacharta crotchets, with his ancient right and character of liberties, notions with his moderate, toned down language and with little of that ostentatious particularity which manifested itself and constantly obtruded itself in the Calcutta Town Hall – is the Birmingham photograph!
But who is Mr. Branson after all? He now belongs to the Calcutta Bar, which is very creditable to him. He is a Madras man, born in Madras and educated in Madras, at first in the Vepery Grammar School and then at the Doveton College during Mr. Halley's time. He went to England afterwards and became a member of the Bar and he wisely went to Calcutta, as in Madras he was well known. His famous speech, which was hailed with loud cheers by the Hoogly gents, would not have been tolerated in this city where Sir Charles Trevelyan's noble Kuam flows. The barrister's father was a partner of Pharowh and Co., who were also Publishers of the Athenaeum when it flourished under Mr. John Bruce Norton's Editorship, so that the great Town Hall Cicero and the expurgate edition of Cicero at Birmingham after all a Madarasee! We say we are proud of him, inasmuch as he had worked himself upto his present position originally from this city – but we felt something akin to remorse when we became aware that a Madarasee so for forgot himself as to lend enchantment to Calcutta Eurasians and Europeans by his platitudes about Magnacharta and ancient rights – and more emphatically by his vigorous rounds of that sort of language which is welcome to an excited audience driven into a strong race antagonism, first by a proposed. Bill they did not grasp from their disturbed condition at that time, and second by the speech of a Member of the Bar which only added fuel to fire.
Is it clear that Mr. Branson as regards himself had no reason to be so fussily ferocious; and he ought to have known, and if he really did not, that others like himself born and educated in this country and getting their professional passport in England, had no legitimate ground to be so alarmed about greasy Babus and `Abominable' Hindus. We regard his attitude at the Town Hall as a specimen of supercilious pride, as a piece of presumption, at times seen in persons similarly educated and fortunate as himself, with similar antecedents. On this ground, we estimate the Branson's wrath differently from his hearers. We condemn it without reserve as unbecoming and ungrateful in one who owes much of the advantages he received from his cradle to his present position to this country, the India among whose people he has mingled and whose money goes largely into his coffers. Well, may the people exclaim et tu Brute! But after all his declamation and that of his brother Atkins have only 'scotched' but not killed the supposed snake in the shape of the Ilbert Bill. The latest Telegrams show that the Home authorities are determined to support the Viceroy and the outcry has only enforced it. The folly of getting up a Monster Meeting opposing even a compromise just clearly indicates the rabid prejudice which is unable to accept a reconciliation of the kind favourable to all classes.
But let us leave Mr. Branson for a while and see what others superior to him in every way think of India and the way in which natives are treated. We will begin with our late Governor, Sir Charles Trevelyan, what does he say? His words deserve to be remembered “All sorts of young men who fail at the competitive examinations in this Country (England), or who do not even venture to go into them, go out to India with recommendations and they have been put into the Police and into the departments of the Revenue as Deputy Collectors to a far greater extent than is right”. This is the way natives qualified have been treated. There is no fair treatment of the interests of India when these gentlemen spoken of by Sir Charles come into opposition to them, what does Lord Lawrence say? "I think that the natives might be more freely employed in offices of trust and emolument, particularly in the judicial branch. I think that they make very good judicial officers" (The italics are ours.) Here is a Governor General, with a vast experience of India for many years, saying that as Judicial officers the natives are well ualified. But, of course, Mr. Branson and his conferers imagine they are slovens and that their wisdom is superior to that of Sir Charles Trevelyan and a Lawrance. We can quote several eminent authorities such as the Hon. W.N. Massey, the once financier of India, S. Bartle Frere, and many others to show that the consensus of opinion of able and experienced officials of high position outweighs by far the petty prejudices of Mr. Branson and his admirers.
The feeling which has been brought to play on the platform and in the press is what John Stuart Mill long ago wrote about in a passage which has been frequently quoted, and which will never lose by repetition, as it is apt and should be digested in these days by every native of the country. He says, "if there be a fact to which all experience testifies is that when a country holds another in subjection, the individuals of the ruling people who resort to the foreign country to make their fortunes are of all others those who most need to be held under powerful restraint. They are always one of the chief difficulties of the Government". Has not this proved true to the very letter in the recent agitations? Who has been the most virulent in language but the foreigner? Who is obstructing the wise policy of Lord Ripon but the European? Who is fomenting opposition and disloyalty but the very countrymen of the Viceroy? Well, might be the learned author of the Representative government say that these foreigners are not only the chief difficulties of the Indian Government, but of all others most need to be held under powerful restraint they have created indiscipline, they are obnoxious, they urge disloyalty against the government if the government declines to consent to their views and proposals. All the chief hubub is theirs. They believe it to be monstrous to give the natives any rights. Their pretentions to offices and emoluments are prodigious. In short they want every thing that is fat, and will leave the fleshless bones for the na tives. Carried away with the idea that they are conquerors, proud of the heroism of their grand fathers, they think it becoming to treat the natives with disdain and to style them "damn niggers".
We have put the case somewhat strongly before the public, but it is true and faithful. When the present party spirit subsides, it will only then strike the agitators how foolish they have been in their violence, and that mainly owing to that violence of temper and language they have lost their aim and object. We think it was a pity that Mr. Branson, who was compelled to apologise for his harsh language at the Calcutta Town Hall, should have taken part in the agitation in England. He had time to cool over the affair, and into the bargain he had a cool climate. We can, therefore, make no excuse for this exasperated Madarasee who carries his uncharitableness wherever he goes, and airs it out when an opportunity occurs to him for displaying his powers of what the Irish call "sweet blarney".
The People's Friend Office, Madras
24h February, 1886
To The Chief Secretary to Government, Madras.
With reference to G.O. No. 397 Miscellaneous 22nd February 1886. I beg you will be good enough to permit me to send you a free copy of the People's Friend weekly, henceforth for the use of Government, as I think my countrymen cannot but be benefited by the authorities occasionally reading what appears in such a widely circulated journal from time to time, regarding their grievances and wants.
Hoping this little favour may not be refused.
I remain Sir, Yours obedient servant, Sd/- Proprietor, The People's Friend.
(Public G.O. No. 605, dated 22.03.1886, Miscellaneous, Tamilnadu Archives)
The Madras Government and the Press (Editorial - People's Friend, 25th February 1888)
About 30 years ago, Sir Charles Trevelyan, then the Governor of this Presidency, with the true instincts of the statesman, introduced, for the first time, the system, which gave the local press all information hitherto kept as secret in the Archives of the Secretariat, which information had nothing of a confidential character in it, but when laid on the Editors' Table would invite public discussion and criticism and thereby help the government in the solution of problems connected with the advancement and interest of the country over which he ruled. There was a novelty in the system which was repugnant to the stereotyped ideas of red tapism prior to his Governorship and the innovation was not favourably received at first by those who were supposed to be his advisors and guides. But Charles was an experienced civilian previous to his taking up the responsibilities of a Governor, and had made his mark in the Indian official world for justness, liberality and comprehensiveness for surpassing any of his contemporaries his independence of spirit completely (.....) the exclusiveness and the conservative (.....) idiocrity which then prevailed in the secretariat. He hardly assumed charge when important state documents and even minutes were sent to the local press. His example was followed for a long time by his successors until the sectarian spirit insidiously crept in and developed itself under the Grant Duff Rule when the frequent complaint was that the Editors' Table was supplied with dry bones; scarcely a dainty morsel appeared, with the exception of few Administration Reports, the local press had literally nothing, and what was known as the proceedings of our rulers was either surreptitiously obtained or acquired from the talk of the club or the bazaar news of the town. The rule laid down was that all Administration Reports and District Manuals and other useful information, not of a confidential character, should be supplied to the local press and a list was made of the Newspapers and among them the People's Friend shared for a time the honors. This rule secured all Reports to local journalism and provided the requisite material for criticism, advice and suggestions. But a change has come over the spirit of the Chief Secretariat. It has constituted itself as Judge as to what journals should get such reports and manuals free and what journals should purchase them. There is no reason given for this departure from the Trevelyan system which provides that all newspapers should be supplied without distinction, with such state documents without charge. The Government in their press print large editions of their reports referred to and the object of this is not that the Government should make money by it so much as the general diffusion of interesting useful information as to what has been done and is being done in this Presidency. The change of system is invidious, as it gives certain local journals the said Reports with the courtesy intended and ruled by Charles Trevelyan, while others are refused them and are directed to purchase the same when a copy is applied for.
We have been urged to offer these remarks from the relation between the People's Friend and the local government. That, the Editor applied for a copy of the Malabar District Manual and the reply received was that, "it cannot be granted gratis, buy it from the Government Press."
The G.O. declining our request is signed by R.W. Benson, Under Secretary to Government. Again in the same month application was made for the Kurnool District Manual, and a facsimile G.O. was received, signed by J. Frederick Price, Secretary. In this month we asked for the educational administration report and Under Secretary A.G. Cardew replies to the effect - go to the superintendent of the government press with your cash for it.
It is hardly necessary for us to state that such refusal is inconsistent and invidious and is anything but creditable to the Government, which rules the Presidency. There is we must be plain, a meanness about these G.Os. which derogate from the dignity of the Government. If it is the spirit of the economy which moves Messrs. Price, Benson, Cardew & Co., why are some journals excused for paying for such reports, why should the People's Friend be grudged the same favour? The fact is that the system of distribution in Secretariat is no system whatsoever, and, if the Secretariat trio will just look into the matter and not press orders at random, they will, we feel certain, escape the anomalous situation in which they have been placed by some illiterate understrapper. We do not object to pay the price or value of these reports, but we protest against being ordered to pay for such reports as are given gratis to others of the fraternity.
Here we may with a justifiable flattering unction to ourselves, say that we hold a position in the eyes of the public and we are proud of it, we may not be the Jupiter or Venus of the press in brilliancy but, however humble our position in the firmament of the Fourth Estate, we revolve round our axis and we shed our light of usefulness around. Our journal has fairly criticised public measures and we claim for it the privileges granted to the local dailies and weeklies. We have said sufficient to show that the People's Friend has not been treated with that civility which has been accorded to our brother journalists. We trust our remarks will meet the eye of Lord Connemara and that His Excellency will see fit to exercise towards us the same favour that is extended to our esteemed contemporaries. Perhaps the Government is under the impression that our paper, being a weekly and our subscription small, within the means of the poorest clerk, our circulation is therefore small and our influence little. Accepting this as a fact for argument's sake the government should be more liberal to us and help us to proclaim their measures abroad with such views and criticism as the measures may call forth. We, as a native journal, however rank only next to the Hindu, in this Presidency, as far every three issues of our contemporary, we can give only one, but for independence of spirit and moderation of tone in the disposal of public questions we are sure that even the Hindu itself will give us credit, and also for industry and perseverance, for sincerity and courage and for ability to fight for the rights of the people.
Salt Tax (The People's Friend – 25th February 1888)
It is surprising that the English Press is silent in respect to the increased Salt Tax. The London Times and the radical papers have done nothing more than publish the telegrams intimating the fact of the enhanced impost. We still think that the salt duty should not be raised, as it is necessary of life and the tax will affect the large poor communities. Salt is much needed both for cattle and man and the farming classes will be the greatest sufferers. We do not deny that the frontier defences, as well as the defence of the Burman empire (British empire?), but surely other ways and means could be found to meet it than this drain. Why not reduce provincial allotments; or what is better than this reduction, cut down the higher salaries in the public service? Much money is wasted from sheer thoughtlessness and whimsical extravagance. In the midst of the cries of a deficit, did not that vain, obstructive Governor (Retd) spend lakhs at Ooty and on works for the pleasures of his coterie? Was he snubbed for this at least? Nothing whatever, when he should have been compelled to refund the money lavished on this ostentatious follies. If it is felt that something must be done where are the patriotic spirits of the service who can yield a couple of hundred rupees for a year at least soothen the distress of the Financier why, tax an article of food essential to a (.........) to life, and which the poorest cannot live without it. The general plea is “State reason” for (........) blessed tax. Let the State curtail temporarily the salaries of the higher paid government servants.
Dampuru Narasaiah's Review on “Kanya Sulkam" appeared in the People's Friend, January 21" 1897.
....... Mr. Apparao is, apparently, a man of original ideas in literary matters. ....... He has wisely and happily discarded for the purpose of his comedy the unnatural, stilted, pedantic, literary dialect so much beloved of Telugu Pandits, and so unduly prized by them and employed. Instead of the simple, ordinary language of common life now in use among all Classes of the population in the Northern districts of this Presidency. The book therefore, marks a new and bold departure in Telugu dramatic composition or for the matter of that, in Telugu composition in general ... The literary tendencies of the present time running, as they do, in such a narrow groove, and being of so stereotyped a character, it speaks very highly, we think, for our author's literary courage, a courage bordering on audacity, that he has been able to set at naught the absurd literary canons of this degenerate age and rise above the prevalent grammatical and literary superstitions in regard to Telugu composition. But not only has he thus boldly used a new literary diction which, though unsanctified by existing usage among authors, bears the stamp and seal of popular approval and universal use. But he has likewise shown unmistakable merit in constructing a singularly original and interesting plot and creating a variety of characters true to life, which we are sure, if represented on the stage, will greatly please any Telugu audience, let alone the reading public who may peruse the drama in the retirement of the study or the library. We have, therefore, much pleasure in recommending “Kanya Sulkam” to all our Telugu readers ...... the characters are all boldly drawn and the whole piece is very happily put together and artistically constructed, evincing no little originality and dramatic skill on the part of the author.
Madras, 15th March 1898, My dear Uncle, safe, My complements,
Your card to hand. I duly informed the contents of it. Veerasamy (....) and also shown it to him. He told me that he will give jewels on receipt of (money) from you, in case of paying the charge of Ratam + Addam+ amounting Rs. 5 which he sustained damages on account of you. He also took from me your address so that he may write to you. Though you did not write me the particulars etc., of the loss of your jewels recently but I was informed through others.
I really sorry for the same and (also) anxious to know the details of it. As far my delay in replying to you, my children are ill for the last 15 days. Dorasamey still suffering from fever, etc., Chinna and his wife, etc., (.....) mother arrived here. All doing well. Rest in my next.
Sd/- D. Audenna
To Dumpur Narasaiah garu, Vennelaganti Gopala Row's house, Rayajee street, Nellore. (as appeared on the back side of the post card)
In the court of the District Munsif. Nellore.
The 3rd Day of October, 1901, Original Suit No. 488 of 1900 First witness for plaintiff being solemnly affirmed by R (illegible), deposes as follows:
My name is Battavari Meenakshamma. My father's name Dampuri Adinarayanayya, my age 65 years, my caste-Brahmin, my profession-landlord, my religion-smartha, my residence- Koduru Khandriga village, Nellore Taluq.
Defendant is my brother's son and was adopted by me about six years ago. My husband died about 50 years ago. ..... My brother Dampuri Narasayya, has an only son, the defendant, he has no daughters. Until 3 years back I used to live together with my brother. The mortgaged lands have been in Narasayya's management for the last 20 years. He is collecting the rents thereof...
Cross: As I was angry with the defendant's father for starting cultivation of land and thus bringing loss, we have been on bad terms for about the last three years. Narasayya used to live in Madras prior to 3 years. For the last 3 years he is living in Nellore. Prior to 3 years, Narasayya used to come now and then to Koduru where I was living and stay for a month or so with me. I used to go to Madras and live there with him. The mortgaged lands used to fetch an annual rent of 10 putties of paddy.
Sd/- ( in Telugu)
Taken down by me in the open court and interpreted to the witness in Telugu and acknowledged by her to be correct.
Sd/- (illegible) District Munsif
In The Court Of The District Munsif, Nellore, The 3rd Day of October 1901, Original Suit No. 488 of 1900
2nd witness for plaintiff being solemnly affirmed by ‘R' (illegible), deposes as follows:
My name is Dampuri Narasayya; my father's name is Adinarayanayya; my age — 52 years; my caste — Brahmin; my profession - Press office and cultivation; my religion - smartha; my residence – Nellore village, Nobobpet taluq. I said that I had been living by cultivation. I mean cultivation of my sister's (PW.1) lands. I have been cultivating them from 1878. I was the Editor of the People's friend at Madras from April 1881 to July 1897. During that period I used to go to my sister's house at Podulem and look after the cultivation now and then. I have removed my residence to Nellore in August 1897. Defendant is my only son and child. I gave him in adoption to my sister (PW.1) in August 1892. Before I settled in Madras in 1881, I was employed in this district and then my sister used to live with me. Defendant is now 13 1/2 years, he was born in April 1888. My sister's husband died in about 1851 AD. She had no children. As long as I was in Madras, defendant lived with me. After I left the place, defendant has been living with me as well as my co-son-in-law, Rapury Audinarayanayya of Venkatagiri, now defendant has been in my protection for the last 7 or 8 months.
Cross : I used to maintain my sister when she was living with me, while I was employed in this district. She never lived with me after I went to Madras. When she came there, she used to stay with my brother. Defendant was never sent to school. I believe I am acting to the best of my ability in the interest of my son, defendant. With the rent of 10 putties of paddy, which my sister used to get, she might maintain herself and educate the defendant ...... For about 10 years after 1878 I used to pay about 10 putties of grain to my sister out of the income of the lands.
Dhurrumtolla, Culcutta 13.01.1902, My dear friend,
Your card of the 9th to hand. I am ashamed to be reminded of my duty so often as you have done. The fact is that every time I got your reminder or kind note I resolved to send you a remittance. But something or other prevented me from giving effect to my resolve. This only deepens my regrets.Owing to Congress and guests in connection (therewith) and owing to exceptionally costly life one has to live in Calcutta, I am just now high and dry. Before a couple of weeks are over, I shall make it a point to lend you a substantial remittance. The man must be obtuse who does see (.....), who does feel your struggle to be useful all your life.
Yours sincerely, Sd/- xxx
To D. Narasaiah Esq, Editor, Andhrabhasha Gramavarthamani, Nellore.
★ ★ ★
Extracts from Native News Paper Reports, Volume-1900 - Tamilanadu Archives, Chennai. (translated from Andhrabhasha Gramavartamani) - (A.G.)
Page 159, April 28th 1900, Revenue Collection
A.G. of the 28th April, advises the poor people not to sell away the paddy wholly, but to dispose of small portion of it to pay the assessment, and preserve the rest for their own sustenance. It observes that unless the revenue authorities show mercy in collecting revenue at a time when many a man in the villages is famishing for want of food; the people will be put to great hardships.
Page 154, May 5th 1900, Village roads
The A.G. of May 5th complains that the inhabitants of villages are put to much inconvenience owing to want of roads. Carts are not able to pass except in summer. It is necessary to construct roads in every village. These and such other works are not attended to under the plea that there are no funds. It is but proper, says the paper, that at least a fourth of the Cess' collected in each village should be expended for the benefit of that village. It suggests that villagers should submit petitions to the government for the purpose and inform that if they should communicate with the Editor, Mr. Dampuri Narasaiah, he would be ready to help the ryots in this matter.
A.G. of the 5th May, complains that Minutes of Municipal and Taluq Board Meetings, etc., appear in the Nellore District Gazette very late, those of January being published in April. The object of the government in publishing any fact in a Gazette is that the people should come to know of it early. Of what use would it be, the paper asks, if such facts should appear long after they had occurred? Instead of publishing the Gazette monthly, it considers it necessary that it should be issued once in a week.
Page 150, May 12th 1900, The Police in Nellore
A.G. of the 12th May, observes that thieves are getting bold more and more in Nellore as the police there are negligent of their duty. The superior officer not doing these works satisfactorily, the subordinate officials grew very lazy. Though a list of the things stolen is presented to the police superintendent, with an offer of a reward, it is not published in the "Police Sheet" but thrown away at the suggestion of the people near him. The police receive bribes and do great injustice to the people. Unless the authorities take proper steps, people will suffer loss and become very unhappy.
Page 156, Village Pounds A.G. of the 12th May, deems it necessary, in the interest of the cultivators, to maintain village pounds in the villages themselves and to require the pound keepers to reside close by the pound. The ryots grow lazy and waste their time without raising crops in the summer, though there are wells available lest the cattle belonging to others may trespass into their fields and graze on the crops, thus wasting their labours. The loss so resulting is one of the strong reasons for the occurrence of the famines. The paper requests the Madras government to attend to this subject
Page 156, May 19th 1900, The Village Munsif
The A.G. of the 19th May observes that the village Munsif or Magistrate is overburdened with too many duties, so that none is satisfactorily performed. Those who are appointed as such are either quite illiterates or, if able to read or write a little, are ignorant of law, and so the civil and magisterial functions are very ill-performed. The paper therefore asks the Madras Government to take the subject into its consideration, observing that it is necessary that the government should administer the villages satisfactorily.
Page 156, May 5th 1900, Karanams
A.G. of the 26th May states that the karanams in villages are all-pow erful. They are experts in entering false items in their account books, which at last prove 'fatal' to the ryots. They do not personally inspect the fields, but enter the accounts of the crops just as they please. All kinds of taxes, e.g., land cess, village service cess etc. that the Karanam at first proposes are confirmed by his superiors. There is not one among the Revenue Inspectors, Tahasildars and Jamabandi Officers who is able to discover the deceit the Karanam practises and to put down the irregularities. The regulations of the revenue department are such that many become corrupt, though there are few who are honest. The paper next states that the Sircar itself knows that the karanams of Ganjam Cuddapah and Nellore are quite dishonest. This is found in the report of the Survey Administration for the 1897-99.
Page 168, June 2nd 1900, Transfer of Police Station at Nabobpet, Nellore
A.G. of the 2nd June, referring to the rumour that the police station at Nabobpet in Nellore is to be transferred to another place, disapproves of the proposal, as Nabobpet is a large centre of growing trade. It says that the non-establishment of police stations at reasonable distances from the villages is the cause of frequent occurrence of crime in Nellore Taluq and requires the authorities to remedy the evil instead of transferring the existing police stations.
Page 170, June 9th 1900, Absence of Schools and Roads in the villages
A.G. of the 9th June, referring to the Madras Administration Report for 1898-99, declaring that, there are no schools in 15,087 large villages and in 1,388 small villages, strikes the proportion and remarks that 53 per cent of the larger and 94 per cent of the smaller villages are faring without schools, and asks "when will the government attend to the piece of injustice, and why does not the government establish a small school in every village as people without education are like brutes?" It further asks, "why not levy a tax under the name of "school cess" or "education cess” and establish schools with the money so realized, or why not appropriate one half of the village cess to village establishments, one fourth of it to schools and the remaining one fourth to the sanitation of the villages?" It remarks that surveys and settlements are frequently had recourse to and heavy burdens are im posed on the people in the villages, although nothing is done for their convenience and comfort. To the towns people, however, many conveniences, it adds, are secured, while to the villagers even letters and small newspapers like the paper itself are not properly delivered. The paper requests that the government should attend to these matters and rectify the same.
Page 185, June 16h 1900, Beggars
A.G. of the 16th June, complains that beggars are proving very troublesome to the people, and asks the government to pass an act for preventing them from molesting the people.
Page 199, June 30h 1900, District Gazette:
The A.G. of the 30th June asks the authorities to supply the District Gazette - not the village sheet alone, but the whole of it - to the village officers, requiring them to record it duly and to give the people free access to the same, inasmuch as the villagers are ignorant of all public affairs at present and as any piece of information, when required, is not obtainable anywhere else except in the taluk or huzur office, and as, even here, one has to undergo considerable trouble and waste much of his time before he could obtain it.
Page 199, July 7th 1900, Executive Council Members
The A.G. of the 7th July, stating that each of the Local Governments of Madras and Bombay consists of a Governor and two Councillors, while North-Western Provinces, Bengal, Punjab and Burma are governed by Lieutenant - Governors without any Councillors to aid them, as what, special benefits the people of those Presidencies derive by having Council Members, and whether the Secretaries for the several departments are not enough. The paper remarks that it is a sheer waste of money to maintain two Councillors in each presidency as they are of very little use to the people.
Delay in delivering letters
A correspondent at Nellore writes to the same paper (A.G) that as there is only one post-peon to attend to a number of duties, such as the delivery of letters, money orders, book packets, etc., in the whole divi sion of the eastern half of Nellore, containing several hundreds of houses, letters do not reach the parties duly in the first delivery. As he has to return to the post office to take charge of the letters arriving by train at 9.30 A.M., for another delivery, he quietly goes there whether he finishes the first delivery work or not. Even in the second delivery as he has to deliver letters, etc., at public offices, most of which are in this division, and collect 'bearing' charges due, his whole time is taken up there. Thus both in the morning and afternoon there is delay in delivering letters at the houses of merchants, etc., in the division. The correspondent therefore requests the postal authorities to sub-divide this division of the town into two parts, one from Bazaar east to Achari street west and the other from Achari street east to the extreme limit of the division.
Kodur Munsiff - The same paper (A.G.) regrets that the village of Kodur (Nellore district) is not provided with capable karanam and assistant munsifs. The paper strongly recommends Mr. Vullur Venkayya, a Government pensioner and Mr. Sarvepalli Subbramayya, who know English, to the munsif's or assistant munsif's post in that village. It earnestly requests the District Collector and His Excellency the Governor to take such matters into their notice and to make the people happy.
Page 215, July 14th 1900, Compulsory Labour
The A.G. of the 14th July, stating that Lord Stanley of Alderley referred in the House of Lords on the 14th May last to an article in the Law Times, wherein it is written that in India no one should be compelled to work and that any such compulsion would be illegal, asks Mr. Mullaly, the District Collector, if it is true that such a law is in force in India, and, if so, whether any one in the district has power to compel any one else to do kudimaramat work.
Appointment of Village Officers - The same paper, referring to the opinion of the Judge in the Allahabad High Court that karanams should not own any land in their respective villages, says that the same rule should be extended to all the village officers. It also observes that if the present system of appointing the natives of the village only as village officers were abolished, men who have passed examinations and are also otherwise capable might be appointed as such officers and by so doing the Sirkar revenue will not be misappropriated as is now done, and the honest ryots will not have to undergo any trouble whatever.
Page 216, Asst. Village Munsif of Kodur (Nellore)
The A.G. of the 14th July, observes that the assistant village munsif, Pemmareddi Pichchireddi was dismissed by the Deputy Collector for acting illegally and for doing things just as he liked. On appeal to the Collector he was reinstated. Asking whether the levying of penalties for failing to do kudimaramat work was to be according to law or according to one's pleasure and stating that Section 6 of Act 1 of 1858 empowers that such fines should be collected as if they were arrears of land revenue, i.e., making a demand first and then attaching property in default of payment, the paper questions if the said Pichchireddi or the other village officers had acted accordingly, and whether they had received or not from Mr. Dampuri Narasayya's servants one rupee and eight annas by coercion and whether they had collected or not similar fines from others also, and whether they had sent the moneys so collected to the treasury. It concludes with the question whether it is desirable to restore a man to his post on appeal when he has thus acted, and requests His Excellency the Governor to decide the matter according to law”.
Page 217, July 21st 1900, Tenancy Bill
A.G. 21st July, writes: — "what has become the fate of the Tenancy Bill, how many days shall the ryots be molested at the hands of the proprietors? Has not the Madras Government any mercy?"
Page 211, Authentication of Vakalatnamas
A correspondent to the A.G. of the 21st July, writes that as the High Court rules require the parties signing vakalatnamas to do so before a judicial officer, they (the vakalatnamas) are generally taken to the village munsifs who authenticate them in the absence of the parties for a small bribe of As.2. Some of the village munsifs are making an actual living by means of such bribes. They in fact wait in the verandah of the District Munsif's Court to obtain the same. They do not seem to realize that such authentication of vakalatnamas in the absence of the parties is a "big forgery". It is of course difficult to prove it as such. Neither the parties that signed the vakalatnamas nor the witnesses, neither the gumastas of the vakils nor the village munsifs, would admit the fraudulent nature of the authentication. But the fact of committing such forgeries is known to all that have anything to do in courts. Such forgeries would not be committed if the government appoints an officer specially for this work in the District Munsif's Court. The Government may prescribe a fee of As. 2 for authenticating a vakalatnama; if parties will be most willing to pay it as they are giving it to the village munsifs now. At this rate, as much as Rs.900 a year or Rs.75 a month may be collected in the District and Munsifs' Courts of Nellore. A registering officer on Rs.25 per mensem and peon on Rs.5 may be appointed so that the cost of the additional establishment would not amount to more than Rs.30 a month. The correspondent hopes the subject will be brought to the 'notice' of the Government.
Page 216, Grievances of the Ryots
The A.G. of the 21s July, observes that it is widely understood that no ryot in India is put under any restrictions under the English Government, but this is not true in many cases, as in practice the poor undergo many troubles. The revenue officials compel the poor people kudimaramat work and in default harass and injure them in a number of ways and extort bribes from them. The officials of the ‘Maramat' department also demand supplies and bribes. Nothing is allowed to be smoothly done unless a bribe is first given. The Delta officers also act similarly. The difficulties to which ryots are put in connection with the water supply are indescribable. The ryots are able to manage things to some extent by collecting money from among themselves and giving bribes to the village officers and their superiors. The paper doubts if there are any authorities anywhere to inquire into such illegalities. When petitions are submitted to the higher officers, proper inquiries are not made and justice is not done. The paper remarks; “God is the only refuge for the poor”.
Page 228, August 4th 1900, The Salt Tax
A.G. of the 4th August, writes that the salt tax is proving very oppressive to the people. As we see the tax increasing day by day, it certainly appears that our rulers are not kind towards the poor. It is surprising why it is not known to the government that it is very unjust to sell the salt required to make Conge at a high price to those that are absolutely very poor.
Page 243, August 18th 1900, Postal Irregularities
The A.G. of the 18th of August, complains that the newspapers and letters posted do not reach the addressees regularly and that they are not delivered to the proper addressees. A few articles posted are delivered while the others are not delivered. They were destroyed during transit. The Sasilekha has often lamented over the said irregularity, but no improvement has been made in the matter. The paper requests the government to issue strict orders to the postal authorities to check the irregularity.
Page 243, August 25th 1900, Beggars in India
The A.G. of the 25th August says, that India may be called a land of beggars. Many millions of people have made begging a regular profession and .means of livelihood. They believe that there is nothing wrong or disgraceful in begging. The paper proposes that an Act should be passed requiring beggars to obtain a licence on a fee of rupee one every six months. The licence should be granted then only under the rules that they should not tease people, that they should take alms only when it is given for the mere asking, that they should go their way when refused, and that defaulters would be prosecuted and punished.
Page 241, Survey and Settlements
The A.G. of 25th August, writes thus :—If surveys and settlements are frequently made what gain is there in the profession of cultivation?. The English government has no idea of this simple fact. Frequent occurrences of famine has reduced the ryots to absolute poverty. It appears to the ryots very cruel that their fields should be subjected to surveys and settlements again and again. The English being foreigners, they are unable to understand this fact.
Page 242, Village Roads
The A.G. of the 25th August, writes thus:—Under the name of land cess the road tax is collected in villages though there are no roads there. What injustice is this! The Madras Government ought to construct roads in villages. One-fourth of the 'land-cess may be entrusted to the village heads and the village roads constructed with that money. If this be done, every village will improve soon. In this country, proprietors of lands being selfish do not help the ryots. The Government also is acting similarly. Unless the Government construct roads in every village and connect them with the high roads, can it be said that even the Government is doing good to the ryots of its own villages? The Government too is an indifferent landlord in relation to its ryots.
The Salt Tax - The A.G. of the 25th August, 1900 observes that it is wrong to levy tax on food-stuffs and that as salt is the most important of all the food-stuffs, it is most unjust to levy tax on salt. Even poll-tax is preferable to salt-tax. God has created salt in abundance that men and animals may use it to preserve their health. It is not at all just that using such article should be considered a great crime, that laws should be framed concerning it, that a number of persons should be appointed to prevent any loss in the salt revenue, and that the poor should thus be harassed. He who makes any reforms in the laws relating to salt will be extolled everywhere as a great benefactor of the country and a ministering angel to the poor.
Page 258, September 8ih 1900, Supply of water to the villages
A correspondent of the A.G. of the 8th September, observes, that the delta officials do not act impartially. They do not supply names of villages that are not supplied with water. Of the villages that are not supplied with water, Kodur (Nellore dt.) is one. The correspondent therefore requests the government to supply the villages with water and to show them mercy, as without its help it is not possible to live in these famine days.
Page 257, Jamabandi
The A.G. of the 8th September, writes:-Our Madras Government has given vain trouble to the Revenue Officers. The name of that vain trouble itself is Jamabandi. Under the ryotwari system it is arranged to give a patta to each cultivator every year. In that patta the land sist, cesses, etc., which the ryot has to pay for the fasli are entered. Jamabandi is another name for the giving of such pattas. In conducting a jamabandi, does the jamabandi officer patiently listen to what the ryots say and then do any work? As far as we know we can say we do not generally find such an officer. If the jamabandi should be properly conducted, it would be a very intricate business. Much patience and good qualifications are necessary for it. They are rare. This is a reason for asking the Government to effect a permanent settlement, i.e., to grant permanent pattas. Under the ryotwari system there is much of worry and trouble every year. This is the jamabandi. Those that are profited by that jamabandi are: the village officers, revenue inspectors, huzur servants, gumastas and if they are bribe-takers tahsildars and serishtadars or their acting incumbents. They have batta' i.e. not only the batta that the ryots give. The batta that the Government gives but also the batta is not in one particular form. Both supplies and money are got. Unless the ryots are dishonest and clever they get no advantage. As for ordinary ryots, even the pattas that are granted during jamabandi do not reach them. The village officers are very powerful. Whatever amount of sist they propose the ryots must pay. The money that is collected in excess of the amount entered in the accounts is shared among them and the taluk and huzur officials.
Page 274, September 15th 1900, Kodur Village
The A.G. of the 15th September, offers its thanks to the government for its having made some arrangements to remove certain irregularities in the administration of the village of Kodur (Nellore District). There is no man in the village capable of trying both civil and criminal cases. Even the village pound is not in a good condition. As the village is not connected with the neighbouring villages by means of good roads the people are put to considerable trouble and inconvenience. There is neither a post office nor a school in the village. “Both were abolished after a time in accordance with the present rules". If a good school be established and the children of the ryots be educated, munsifs, assistant munsifs and karanams may be available in the village itself. If that is not done or if capable men are not sent for from other villages, the village will continue to be in its usual backward state forever. If the government does not improve even such large villages as Kodur, its reputation will suffer.
Page 273, Mr. Spring's feeder Railways The A.G. of the 15th September, referring to the book written by Mr. Spring, the Railway Secretary to the Madras Government, about the usefulness of constructing feeder railways, says that many of the Collectors consulted have proposed the construction of such lines on some of the roads in their districts. But unfortunately for Nellore the District Board as well as the District Collector have declared that it would be of very little use to attempt such a work in the district. The paper requests the government not to pay any heed to the "counsel of such councillors.
Page 274, Village Officers
The A.G. of the 22nd September, quotes the G.O. No. 362, dated 16th June 1898 and asks what effect was given to that order and why illiterate persons are still appointed as village officers. The Tahsildars recommend stupid persons to the said posts and the District Collectors implicitly acquiesce in those recommendations. The paper requests the government to put a stop to that procedure as people suffer a great deal when uneducated persons are appointed as village officers.
Page 273, September 22nd 1900, Feeder Railways
The A.G. of the 22nd September, proposes the construction of “small railways" on such important roads as Krishnapatnam road, Kodur road, Meipadu road and Indukurpet road as the cart track there is always heavy. Though Mr. Mullaly has not, unfostunately for Nellore, brought this matter himself to the notice of the Government, the paper says it will itself do so and states that Mr. Spring should personally enquire into the matter and ascertain the truth of it.
Page 292, September 291h 1900, The Vizagapatnam Harbour:
A.G. of the 29th September 1900, quotes from Ravi that if the Vizagapatam harbour be not repaired the “metal manganese” dug from the mines in Vizagapatam will be despatched by railway to Calcutta and that the Madras Government should therefore take the necessary steps in order that Vizagapatam might not be deprived of the profits derivable from exporting the metal from its port.
Page 293 Three brothers as village munsifs of three adjoining villages: A.G. of the 29th September, states that the karnams of the three neighbouring villages of Kodur, Eadur and Varakavipudi (Nellore district) are brothers, and informs that Kodur and Eadur karnams were suspended from service for having been involved in certain difficulties. It expresses its surprise to note that the three brothers should be appointed to three adjoining villages, and requests the District Collector and the Government to enquire into the subject and take such steps that similar appointments may not hereafter be made. By such appointments both the ryots and the Government suffer loss.
Page 292, October 6th 1900, Ryots in the Madras Presidency
A.G. of the 6th October, writes:—Unlike the other Presidencies, the Presidency of Madras is a very poor one. The ryots here are extremely poor. The sytem of ryotwari settlement instituted for them is a very complicated one. This system is very convenient for the Revenue officials, Kapus and Karnams to plunder the ryots. The Madras Government should therefore attentively read what the newspapers published on behalf of the poor ryots, write and see that justice is done to them.
Page 317, October 13th 1900. Correctly kept Accounts
A.G of the 13th October, writes thus :—The Government does not care to know the truth. It does not like those who speak the truth. It is very much annoyed if a statement of the actual state of matters is submitted. Every account that is sent to it is full of mistakes. The statement of cultivation is not correctly given. The crime register is not correctly written up. The income tax accounts are false accounts. There are many such things. Is there no way of rectifying such matters? There is. The Government must listen to sound counsels and make proper arrangements accordingly. If it does so, the people will be benefited and the Sircar work will be done well.
Page 317, Wanted two post offices at Nellore
A.G. of the 13th October, requests the Postmaster-General to abolish the present post office in Stonehousepet and to open two new post offices, one in Nabobpet and the other in Stonehousepet, constituting them into such offices as can transact every kind of postal business. It is necessary to open a post office in Koduru also which is a very large village.
Page 317 October 20th 1900, Requiring prisoners to cultivate lands
A.G of the 20th October, referring to the Dartmoor prison and the 1,400 acres of land that is cultivated by the prisoners there, asks why similar steps should not be taken in India also. Instead of sending away persons sentenced to transportation for life by sea, prisons may be established in localities where much of unoccupied land exists and the criminals may be sent to such prisons to cultivate the land there. The English people have studied the art of cultivation perfectly and carry on cultivation through many excellent processes. The Government may, for the good of the people at large, get such excellent cultivation done by prisoners in this country.
Page 308, Police
A.G.of the 20th October writes, as follows:-Should the crimes virtually decrease in number or should it be represented in the accounts that they have so decreased? This may appear a queer question. It will not, however, be strange to those who know the facts. Good intelligent men and men of wisdom are not to be had amongst the police. Therefore, they do not enter in the crime register all the offences committed day after day. If they enter them, they will be obliged to detect the culprits and find out the lost property. For that reason, they do not at all enter the crimes. Even when they do enter a crime, they undervalue the property. They charge under sections relating to light punishments what ought to be charged under sections prescribing heavy punishments. They do not enter in their registers even such grave crimes as murders, high way robberies, dacoities etc. The police are spending their time in this way like a cat that sips milk with closed eyes. Is this untrue? Everyone knows that this is true.
Page 311, Irregularities in the collection of revenue
A.G. of 20th October, writes thus:— the Bombay Government is going to make a public enquiry into this subject. The same has to be done in this Madras Presidency also. In every village in this Nellore Tq itself the fact of making many unlawful collections, omitting to enter (in accounts) large areas under cultivation, and frequent bribe taking is known to all. If the government punishes those culprits that are found out, the irregularities may decrease to some extent. It does not do so. It does not notice such a small paper as this. This is a great defect in its administration. It is its duty to redress the people's grievances by ascertaining them through the paper they read. The Madras Government forgets this duty.
Page 330, October 27 1900, Tackling Crime
A.G. of the 27th October, adverting to the recent murder of Mr. Singara Velu Pillai, observes that cruel murders are often perpetrated in Madras. The Madras police is ignominiously unable to detect culprits. Intelligent men are wanting everywhere in the police department and Madras is no better in this respect. The police must try by all means to detect the murderers in the said case. It would be a great shame if it should fail to do so.
Page 339, Hindu Child Marriages
A correspondent (Nayana Sastry), to the A.G. of the 27th October observes that the untimely and too early marriages in the Hindu families are productive of many evils causing great anxiety to them. He calls on the patriots of India to ask the government to take this subject into its consideration and to legislate that a father or guardian who performs the marriage of a son or ward when he is poor or when the son is in his minority will be punished with rigorous imprisonment for one year and solitary confinement for a part of the term.
Page 334, November 3rd 1900, Postal Stationery
A.G. of the 3rd November, referring to a complaint that postal stamps, cards and covers are not procurable at Nabobpet, remarks that what is complained of is quite true and that the Editor himself has experienced the difficulty and that the authorities should therefore soon to attend to it. A separate post office authorised to transact all branches of postal business must be opened. The paper thinks it also necessary that a Telegraph signaller should be attached to the post office for transmitting telegraphic messages.
Page 363, November 10th 1900, Supplies by Village Officers A.G. of the 10th November, writes thus:-Is not a rumour current that village officers decline to continue holding their appointments, as they are required to provide supplies to every visitor? It is but fair that supplies should be made to, and their value recovered from, those that go to villages on public duty. If it is so done, there is no doubt that it will be pleasing to all. Is it not true that sometimes it so happens that the village officers do not get the cost of things so supplied? Is it not true that something more than the sist is collected from the ryots in order to make up the losses they (the village officers) incur?
Page 363, November 17th 1900. Revenue Bribery
A.G. of the 17th November, writes that the government will do well to read the very valuable book called “The Revenue Bribery," written by the late Mr. C. Rungacharlu, who served in the Nellore district, and who was also for some time the Diwan of Mysore.
Page No. 363, November 24th 1900, Irregularities in the Revenue
A.G. of the 24th November, writes that if the government desires to know what irregularities are prevalent in the Revenue department, it may send either Diwan Bahadur R. Raghunadha Row, who enjoys the confidence of the government as well as of the people, or the Hon'ble Mr. P. Chentsal Row, or some other gentleman of their status and reputation to all the districts and ask him to submit a report on the irregularities. "Would not the government get angry if one says that wrongs are perpetrated in its administration? If it wants proof for every piece of information can we, poor people, afford to give it? It is generally difficult to prove what is true. All the abuses are known to such persons as more familiarly among the people with their ears and eyes open. But though they are aware, what can those starving people do?
Page 359, Establishment of schools in villages
A.G. of the 24th November, remarks that the government should establish village schools in such villages as contain more than 500 inhabitants and grant schools" in smaller villages, and suggests that a new tax called "village school cess" may be levied for maintaining the same. Page 375. December 1st 1900, Revenue Sists
A.G. of the 1" December, asks why the assessment of any year should be collected in that very year. The troubles to which the ryots are put as the date of payment nears are indescribable. In 1899 during the months of March, April and May, the prices of food grains were very low and the editor who is also a ryot, had to mortgage all his jewels for paying sist. The fields since then did not produce good crops for want of rains. So he has not yet redeemed those jewels. Why not, the paper asks, the assessment due for any particular year be collected in one or two instalments, during next fasli, before the end of December? It hopes that the Madras Government will take the subject into its consideration.
Page 377, Kodur - construction of bridge over the stream
A.G. of 1st December states that the paper was originally started only for the benefit of the Kodur village (Nellore district) and that, therefore the readers should not get disgusted for publishing articles about the village frequently in the paper. A streamlet runs across the road leading to Kodur. During rains it is flooded with water from Kodur tank causing much inconvenience to passengers. The paper requests the District Collector to get a bridge constructed over the stream.
Kodur - posting a worthy Village Munsif
A.G. of 1st December, asks whether the petty village servants such as vetties receive their pay regularly and whether the rumour that the village heads get the work of their fields done by such servants without paying them anything in return is true? It also asks why a capable, intelligent and worthy village Munsif should not be appointed (for Kodur) to dispose of all petty cases.
Page 383, December 8th 1900, Laws favourable to Zamindars
A.G. of 8th December, observes that the Madras Government of late been framing laws for the benefit of the Zamindars, but has not cared for the ryots. This is but natural as ryots are poor. There is none to make an attempt to remove their difficulties. It is said that an Act for making certain Zamindari estates impartiable is going to be passed. It may be con ceived how equitable it is. The Zamindars are extremely fortunate. It is not known what good they have done or will do for the government or for the people. It is well that the estates of Zamindars should be partiable like all other estates. If the Zamindari lands are impartiable, so must the lands of the Shrothriamdars, Enamdars and the ordinary Pattadars be.
Page 396, December 15th 1900, Village associations
A.G. of the 15th December, says that if it is the desire of the people that the country should prosper, village associations, taluk associations and district associations must be formed. In every village there must be an association composed of all the ryots of the place. In every such association there must be a president and a secretary and treasurer, the president not being a government servant. Each member must subscribe to the association at least one anna. One-third of the money thus collected must be set apart for the taluk association which, being managed by a president and a secretary and treasurer, like the village association, must in its turn part one-third of its receipts for the district association managed, likewise. The district association must send one-third of the money it receives to the Madras Mahajana Sabha and manage its own affairs with the balance. The work of such associations should be to attend to all matters that concern the well being of the country.
The same paper writes thus :-- The Government (The English Government) is a good one. Although there are a few defects in its administration both our country and ourselves have on the whole been benefited greatly. Every villager should remember this fact. We should bring our grievances to the notice of our rulers, the English. How can we do so? We can do so through newspapers, and memorials and by forming associations and holding public meetings. If these four are developed, there is no doubt that we would feel more and more happy under the English administration of the country. The wise men amongst us should use these four ‘instruments' discreetly. They should use them with great awe and reverence and not imprudently.
Page 398, The Impartiable Estate Bill
A.G. of the 15th December, learns that the government will pass an Act making some of the Zamindaries impartiable. This is not right. Wise men cannot but perceive that many evils will result from such a procedure. Even should the act be passed, it is wrong to give it a retrospective effect. An Act may be passed to make only such estates impartiable as are found from records to have never been partitioned before.
Page 392. December 22nd 1900, The Indian Police
A.G of 22nd December, says, that the police force in India is not an able force. Persons employed in the police must be educated, expert, truthful and benevolent. They must not be simply bent upon making money and eking out a livelihood. All persons employed in the police department down to the constable possess considerable authority. Very few of the higher appointments in this department are conferred upon natives. These are almost monopolised by Europeans. However clever and able a native may be, he is not given high appointments in this department and this is a great defect in the English administration of the country. It is a perfect contrast to the practice in vogue in the Native States, such as Mysore. Another drawback in the administration is that the police are required to do a good deal of clerical work, such as the filling up of forms. The paper suggests that a number of detectives should be attached to every station who should be paid liberally and relieved from much of their clerical work. These detectives should be under the control of a chief detective officer of the district to be appointed for the purpose. Every offence should be entered in the crime register and the police should not investigate any offence after its entry in the crime register. The police should have no power to apply for prosecution regarding complaints made to them. The practice of sending “reference charge sheets” to magistrates as regards “noncognisable cases” is not a good one. The police force must be strengthened, enlisting only able and educated men. For, when the police is unable to make out which members in the force itself are dishonest, how can it distinguish, the paper asks, the dishonest people from others, generally.
Detectives - The same paper writes thus : -- In the Indian Police force there are very few detectives who are able enough either to skillfully inquire into crimes or apprehend offenders. In the Madras Railway Police force there is a very intelligent detective officer, Mr. Papa Rao Naidu. He is an able, educated and expert officer. It would be well if several such officers are enlisted in the police and employed on detective duty. They should be paid liberally and raised to the rank of Super intendent or Assistant Superintendent, provided they are of good conduct and learning. The starting pay of a detective may be fixed at Rs.15 and it may be increased gradually. To each police station must be attached two or three detective officers. The detective branch must form a separate branch in the police administration. The detectives need not be trained in drill, etc. It is enough if they detect crimes.
Murder in Nellore - The same paper says that it clearly follows from the murder committed in Nabobpet (Nellore) that the badmashes there and the other parts of Nellore are not in the least afraid of the police. This is so because the police force consists of men who are indifferent, illiterate, and unrighteous and devoid of all humanity. The authorities must bear this in mind and must try to reform the police everywhere. To every police station in Nellore must be attached a number of detectives. The number of constables in each station must also be increased. Though it is easy to see that a native police inspector will do well in Nellore, it is not possible to understand why a European or a Eurasian inspector has been appointed for a long time. Natives can do much better in bringing offenders to justice. At any rate, if badmashes like those who have committed the said murder are not properly punished, the people will have no safeguard and will be constantly apprehensive of danger.
Page 397. Government notices published in A.G.
A.G. of the 22nd December, writes thus:-Sircar matters were dealt with very often in this paper. The Government of Madras and its officials have been carefully noticing them and making enquiries into them. But there is one defect in us. We cannot establish by proof every statement that appears in these columns. The authorities ought not to construe this as a drawback. Here and there many irregularities take place. It is the duty of the authorities to find them out and punish the offenders.
Native News Paper Reports, Volume - 1901
Page 9. December 29th 1900 - Construction of new canals
A correspondent to the A.G. the 29th December (received on the 4th January 1901) writes that if channels be dug from the Challa Kalva which branches off from the Swarnamukhi, the fields in the villages of Tennelapudi. Yargatipalli. Mulaganuru, etc. (Nellore district) will yield good produce. Under the present state of things not even the one half of sist can be collected by the government from sukli and wastelands. If canals be constructed as proposed the public will grow very happy.
The A.G. of 29th December asks if the remuneration fixed for vetties, kavalgars and other menial village servants is paid to them duly without being appropriated by the village heads. It is true, it further asks, that the said village heads get the work of their own fields done by the village servants gratis?
Page 13. Medical Help in Villages
The same paper complains that proper medical help is not available in villages. It therefore proposes that experienced hospital assistants should be appointed, on a salary of Rs.40 a month with a batta of Annas 8 per day, to go round the villages with a good stock of medicines. There should be as many as such itinerant hospital assistants, the paper says, as there are revenue inspectors.
The same paper reports that many persons living in villages have recently fallen a prey to fever and cholera. The paper requests the authorities to supply the village munsifs with quinine pellets and cholera medicine. If the price of a quinine packet is to be fixed at such a small sum as two paise, the government may secure a good sale through every village munsif. In the same manner the cholera medicine may be sold. "Will the government look any thing" the paper asks, "by taking such steps”. The same paper observes that Governors come and go, but it is known only to the omniscient God and to the officers in attendance upon the Governors whether sufficient care is taken about the well being of the poor ryots or not. The poverty of the people in this country is increasing day by day. Famines are frequently paying visits. Instead of getting Governors and Governor General from England paying ten thousand and twenty thousand rupees to them as before, the paper remarks that rich and honest noble men should be invited from that country with an offer of only five thousand and eight thousand rupees it commends the subject to the consideration of the rulers. Beggars Pest - The same paper complains that various classes of beggars, such as the bull beggars, flatterers, gypsies, etc. moving about freely, worry the people a great deal. The paper asks whether the government is not able to relieve the people from such pest to some extent at least.
Page 18. January 5th 1901
The A.G. of the 5th January of 1901 writes that snake charmers are giving very great trouble to the people while they go about begging. The paper proposes that each such beggar should be made to take out Licence paying an annual fee of Rs.1. It should be laid down as a condition that he would be punished if he should give any trouble and decline to go away on the refusal of alms. The rule, it adds, should be extended even to such beggars as are blind, lame, etc.
Page 43, January 26th 1901, Village Police
A.G. of the 26th January, proposes that as lawlessness is on the increase in the villages, the government must appoint a village constable for each village and place under his control the village watchman and the talaries and so guard the villages. If a proper village police force is formed everywhere, that, robbery, murder and many other similar crimes would cease to be perpetrated.
The A.G. of the 26th January writes to say that though "this paper is very small one, matters connected with the district of Nellore are now and then published in it”. It also gives place to contributions from correspondents. It therefore requests the authorities, the new collectors, etc. to pay attention to what is written in the paper.
The same paper observes that it is stated in many places the inams granted for charitable purposes are appropriated and enjoyed by certain persons. In the Nellore district itself many such inams are misappropriated. The government therefore must get proper accounts prepared and if it is ascertained that the original charities are not duly performed, it should distrain such property and levy proper “Ryotwari Sist”. “All the land is the public property. Why should the public sustain any loss and why should a few only have the benefit of it".
Page 56, February 2nd 1901, Land Revenue and Settlements
The A.G. of 2nd February says that the poor ryots suffer very much on account of the collection of the Government sist from this month onwards and asks why the sist for this year should not be collected in arrears next year. It remarks that it is very regrettable that the ryots should be forced to sell their grain for any price they might get to pay the sist.
The A.G. of 2nd February says that consistently with the custom obtained in this country it is well if the poor of all classes are fed on some one day by the Sircar on account of the demise of Her Majesty the late Empress.
The A.G. of 2nd February says that much advantage will not accrue by the publication of the District Gazette unless it is issued once a week, raising its subscription a little if necessary. It further says that the village sheets, now published by the authorities for the benefit of the villagers, and supplied to the village officers, often contain news in English which in not understood by them. It therefore recommends that the authorities would improve those sheets by publishing useful matter in vernaculars and supplying a copy to each government Ryot gratis.
Page 66, February 9ih 1901, Courts
A correspondent to the A.G. of the 9th February says that there is a report that the two Village Munsif Courts in the town of Nellore are in a very disorganised condition. He requests the authorities to make speedy enquiries as to the truth of the rumour and do good to inhabitants.
The A.G. of the 9th February observes that village munsifs are paid very low. It recommends to levy the village cess at one anna per rupee hereafter and classify the village munsifs in three grades paying them respectively rupees 16, 14 and 12 monthly. It adds further that they must be required to pass either the matriculation or the lower secondary examina tion as it is not possible for any persons who have not been educated upto that standard at least, to manage efficiently the civil and criminal work they have to do. The assistant Munsifs may be entrusted with the revenue work only. Unless such steps are taken there can never exist, it remarks, even a single Village Munsif's Court working satisfactorily.
Page 69, Native States
An article in the A.G. of the 9th February subscribed as "the Ryots of the Venkatagiri Zamindari" states "we are undergoing many hardships owing to a dearth of water and consequent failure of crops. Though we are in a very miserable condition the 'Raja' does not mind our sufferings. Timely inspections of the withered fields and waste lands are not held. No sist remissions are granted. Demands are made and civil and summary suits are filed against us and rent is collected under severe restraints".
Page 102. February 23rd 1901, Land Revenue and Settlement
The A.G. of the 23rd February writes thus:—the collection of the revenue in the Nellore district has already commenced and that in consequence these of the ryots suffer and will have to sell their grain. It is convenient to sell the grain during the months of July, August and September and pay the government sist all at once in October. It will be well if the government show compassion to the ryots and abolish the collections of the revenue by instalments.
Page 120, March 2nd 1901, Nabobpet Murders
Note: Contents of this page were missing in NNR. (The narration is about the murder of Ammanni of Nabobpet and the murderers were apprehended).
Page 145, March 9ih 1901. Village Couris
The A.G. of the 9th March (received 2nd April) thinks that there are no competent persons to be appointed as village munsifs to all villages in the Presidency and that the present village munsifs are quite unfit and almost uneducated. As the revenue work is important, the paper suggests that the present incumbents may be entrusted with the collection of assessment, calling them assistant munsifs. It says further that edu cated men should be appointed as village munsifs on good salaries at the ate of one for every four or five villages. to try cases below Rs.20, allowing appeals from their decisions to the district munsif of the talug and recommends the appointment of a district munsif for each taluq. It further says that unless this is done, the village munsif courts will simply be a farce.
Page 160, March 16h 1901. Land Revenue Settlement
The A.G. of the 16th March, while referring to the Vilukanipalli Shrothriam in the Nellore district, says that many of the inams out of the fifty two settled in by the Late Mr. Chanchal Rao Pantulu are not now in the enjoyment of the inamdars descendants. The paper thinks that both the government and the ryots will be greatly benefited if the whole village of Vilukanipalli is surveyed closely. It therefore, recommends that this should be first done and a karanam and a Kavalgar appointed immediately. Every one plays the part of a karanam in the village and the Sircar has not appointed any responsible person for the post. There is quite an anarchy' in the village.
A correspondent writes to the same paper as follows:-the shrothriamdars are deceiving the government in various ways in this very Nellore taluq. The government should enquire into the matter, take possession of such inams and grant them to darkhastdars or dispose off them by auction.
A ryot writes to the A.G. of the 16h March, that government should pass the Tenancy Bill very soon, as proprietors do not care for the difficulties of the poor ryots. He adds, they could easily remove the poor ryots, however long they might have been holding their lands under them.
Page 171, March 23rd 1901, Village staff for Zamindari Villages
The A.G. of 23rd March writes thus. The Madras Government should immediately make arrangements to provide on proper salaries the village staff for zamindari and shrotriam villages. By so providing without delay there is advantage both to the ryots and to the government. The only persons that will regret it are the zamindars and shrotriamdars. As there are not competent village munsifs and karanams in these villages many irregularities, frauds, etc., practised and the government loses much. They (the existing staff) misrepresent the extent of cultivated area. They do not give correct accounts for levying water rate. The accounts are not properly prepared for “land cess". If village cess is levied and a village munsif, karanam and kavalgar are provided for each of the zamindari and shrotriam villages, great many irregularities can be removed. The government should also make a detailed survey of villages through their river channels, etc. It is not of much consequence, even if the government has to bear the cost of the same or it may levy it from the ryots. The people of India are well versed in perpetrating many kinds of mischief or crime. To the poor people, zamindars, shrotriamdars and government servants do each of them, commit them. The government should watch and remedy them without being deceived.
Page 182, March 30th 1901, Education
The A.G. of the 30th March (received 2nd May) writes that unless that the natives go to England and pass difficult examinations in English they cannot get collectors posts etc., while this is the case with the natives, it asks why the Europeans should get any rewards for passing in vernaculars when they seek employment in this country. They must, under the existing regulations, pass in vernaculars and get appointments and not by any other means. To give them rewards for passing in vernaculars is not therefore fair. The government, it says, should think over the matter well and issue new rules.
Page 183, April 6th 1901
A.G. of 6th April writes:—the assessment due for current fasli is being easily collected in Nellore as the prices have risen. But there is much loss to the poor people by making the collection so promptly. It would be a great help to the poor if the assessment for the current fasli were directed to be collected at the beginning of the next fasli, far, by so doing, not only would the ryot find a good price for his grain, but he would also be in a position to decide how much of the produce should be sold, and how much retained for his use. Now there is famine every year. The government should treat the ryots like their children. If the ryots are ruined, both the government and the country would be affected. This fact the government should not forget.
The A.G. of the 6ih April (received on 2nd May) says that the legislative council has not been holding its meetings even once a month, and that the council members seem satisfied with the mere title “The Honourable". It proposes that the council should meet at least once in a month, and the special meetings might be held whenever necessary. It thinks it is desirable in many ways to give the non-official members an allowance of at least Rs. 10 for each day of attendance.
Page 197, April 20th 1901, Sentence of Death
The A.G. of the 20th April, says that the capital punishment is detested by many Hindus as they held Ahimsa (non killing of any creature) as the greatest of virtues. It believes that rigorous imprisonment and transportation are quite sufficient punishments. The government, it says, can hang a living man but cannot revive a dead person. All intelligent people cannot but feel that capital punishment is undesirable.
Higher Salary for District Munsifs - The same paper says that all 'experienced' men know how far bribery was prevalent among district munsifs some years ago. Even now there are a few cases of corruption. The powers of the district munsifs are great but their salary is small. It therefore recommends that their salary be fixed at Rs.200, 400 and 450 so that they may be above temptation.
Village Munsifs - The same paper suggests that in view of inconvenience caused by them not being competent village munsifs, government should establish a village munsif court for every group of three or four villages, appointing as munsifs such as have passed the Matriculation examination at least and the village munsif's test, on salaries of Rs.20, 25, 30 or 35 grading them in four classes. It says that all petty civil and criminal cases should be tried in these courts, levying court fees on a moderate scale.
Page 198, Municipality The A.G. of the 20th April, while commending all the suggestions made by Dr. Grant for making Nellore a healthy place says that it would be better to appoint a paid chairman for the Municipality of Nellore, as the work of the unpaid chairman, who attends to it only at his leisure, cannot be satisfactory.
Page 200, Zamindaris
The A.G. of the 20th April, referring to the recent case of the Surangi Zamindar, who was charged with having submitted false accounts in order that sist might be reduced, says that such irregularities are prevalent everywhere and that the government will be able to better collect sist if it can undertake the survey, demarcation and settlement of all Zamindari villages, and appoint competent village officers. It asks why the government has not done so.
Page 209. April 27th 1901
The A.G. of the 27th April 1901 (received 24th May), says it would be a very beneficial act indeed if the government allows a postage of quarter anna only on letters weighing not more than a quarter tola. Registered newspapers should be received as such in whatever post office they may be posted. Such papers as weigh 5 tolas and less should, it says be carried by post for quarter anna only. It seems, it remarks, that in Australia newspapers are dispatched gratis by the postal authorities. Why should not, the paper asks, the postal authorities in India render same little help to the newspapers.
The A.G. of the 27th April complains that it is not yet known who are appointed as the village munsif and other village officers of Kodur (Nellore District) as the higher authorities act very cowardly they are not able to do anything conducive to the well being of the people. While one may does the work, another man gets the remuneration for it. All those that have any voice oppress and worry the people and the government does not at all seem to attend to the grievances of the people.
Page 229, May 4th 1901
The A.G. of the 4th May 1901 (received on the 5th June), regrets to find many post masters paid such very low salaries as 2 1/2, 3. 4 and 5. This, it remarks, is disgraceful to the government and injurious to the people, since such low paid servants are naturally tempted to commit illegal acts. It therefore recommends an increase to the said salaries.
The same paper (received 5th June) reports that a person belonging to a toddy shop near the police station (at Nabobpet, Nellore) went about the street where the office of the paper is situated bawling and tomtoming inviting purchasers to buy his toddy from morning till 10° clock in the night for about 20 days from 10th to 31st May 1901. The police never took any notice of this nuisance, though it was troublesome to the inhabitants in the said street. The paper asks if it is allowable to proclaim the sale of intoxicating drinks by crying aloud in the streets, is no wrong committed, it questions, in inducing people to become drunkards. The Collector and the Police Superintendent are requested to enquire into the subject and to prevent all such irregularities in future.
Page 197, May 11th 1901, The Runga Reddy Murder Case
The A.G. of 11th May, while referring to the Judgment of the High Court in the Runga Reddy murder case, says that the whole of the Madras Presidency is moved with grief and surprise at the judgement, as the murder was committed in broad day light, in an open place and in the presence of the cart driver and two other men. That such an act should have been daringly committed under the British Regime and that the murderers should be at large undetected frighten every man. The panic caused among the people at and around Gooty consequent on this murder is indescriable The paper requests the government to offer reward so that to detect the culprits and to issue strict orders to the police authorities to make all necessary inquiries into the case.
Page 267, May 25h 1901, The Jamabandi
The A.G. of the 25th May, observes that the Jamabandi is a useless business. It is not known to the people, it says if the Jamabandi of Nellore has recently taken place nor do they know who the Jamabandi officer was. There is no good whatever resulting from Jamabandi except that the village, taluq and huzur officers are subjected to fruitless trouble, the ryots being saddled with the village expenses, etc. Even the pattas granted in the Jamabandi are not given to each ryot. The village authorities of Kodur (the village of the Editor, in the Nellore taluq) do not send pattas to him, he says, every year.
Page 269, Venkatagiri affairs
The A.G. of 25th May, observes that owing to the partition suit between the Raja of Venkatagiri and his brothers, there is a party feeling raging among the inhabitants. It seems that certain useless orders are issued to the servants of the Raja. The barbers and the washermen are not at liberty to serve anybody they like. The people are not allowed to freely attend the ceremonies in each other's families. It is surprising to hear, the paper says, that such irregularities are noticeable even under English regime. The government should enquire into the truth of the above statement and prevent any breach of peace.
Page 269, June 1st 1901
The A.G. of the 1st June 1901 writes:- If Act I of 1889 were in force, it would be a splendid Act. It may be asked if the Act is not in force, it may be certainly asserted that it is not. Has anything been done according to the intentions of its authors though many a year has passed by? Where are the village courts? Where are the benches? Where are capable munsifs? It is stated that if the village munsifs are incapable or if they neglect to perform their duties or if their conduct is questionable, the collector may dismiss or suspend them. Is it practically done so now? It may be true that on a rare occasion some one village munsif is punished, but does the government note how many village munsifs are capable of discharging their duties, how many are doing their work diligently and how many are conducting themselves faithlessly. Whatever the condition of the villages may be, the government does not concern itself with the incompetency of the munsifs as long as the revenue duties are discharged satisfactorily by them. It would not be well if the government would not interest itself in the matter. As what we write (here) is what concerns the public at large, it is a drawback in the administration of the government to neglect it.
Page 327, June 8th 1901, Defects in the administration of Kodur (Nellore) The A.G. of the 8th June (received on 10th August), regrets to find the government paying no heed to the defects pointed out by the paper in the administration of Kodur village. It asks why a post office should not be opened in such a large village as Kodur and why a primary school should not be established for teaching both Telugu and English upto the 4th standard. Recommending that a road should be constructed to connect the village with Mandapam, Edur and other villages in the neighbourhood, it complains that the village magistrate and the karanam in the village are not competent men.
Page 324, June 15th 1901, Complaints against the Police
The A.G. of 15ih June (received 10th August), complains that when a report is made to the police of any crime committed, they do not take any steps to detect the offenders and bring them to justice. What is worse, they do not even enter the crimes in the crime register. The paper regrets to see that the government is ignorant of such a state of affairs.
The same paper complains that in the village of Kodur and other neighbouring villages, crimes are too frequently committed. There is none to check them or detect the offenders and punish them. In every village there is of course a watchman, but he hardly makes his appearance when necessary. The paper therefore requests the government to establish a petty police station in every village, appointing a village constable, able to read and write, so as to attend everyone of the police duties under the orders of a station house officer, on a pay of Rs. 4 or 5 per mensem.
Page 346, June 22nd 1901
The A.G. of the 22nd June, regrets to state that the Zamindari of Venkatagiri is not managed by a competent Diwan. As all important transactions in the Presidency are at present conducted in English, and all the heads of departments under government are Englishmen, one might expect that the Diwan of such large Estate as Venkatagiri should possess a good knowledge of English. But it is very surprising that the Raja had appointed as Diwan one utterly ignorant of that language. Why did not the government, the paper asks, inquire into this matter? It (government) does not care, perhaps for the good condition of such a large Zamindari as this, which extends over an area of more than three thousand square miles.
Page 358, June 29th 1901
A.G. of the 29th June, (received 30th August), writes:- It is desirable that the Government should require each ryot to furnish statement of the extent of land that he cultivates under several heads during a fasli. The ryot must be held responsible for the accuracy of the statement and must be prosecuted for any false entries made therein. The government now holds the karanam only as answerable. This is not right. The ryot first must submit the statements. The karanam, revenue inspector, tahasildar etc., must next inspect and settle them.
A correspondent of A.G. of the 29th June complains that post cards, covers and stamps are not readily obtainable at the post office of Venkatagiri. The post master says that he gets a supply of post cards, etc., only once a week from the head post office and that he is therefore unable to supply the public when the stock is exhausted and before a fresh supply received. The correspondent questions why he should not get larger supply than what is required and keep it in stock, it may be available always for the public.
Page 381, July 13th 1901
The A.G. of the 13th July, (received 14th September), complains that the Madras Government has not constructed good roads in villages though it has been regularly collecting road cess from every ryot. Although there are 1, 149 miles of road in the Nellore district there are on the whole only 57 miles of village road. What happiness can the ryots hope to enjoy, the paper asks, if there are no good roads in the villages they inhabit. It requests the authorities concerned to construct all the necessary village roads in course of time.
The A.G. of the 13th July, complains that the poor villagers can never hope to be happy unless the government undertakes to establish village courts one for every large village or every group of two or three small villages. The government should, under Act 1 of 1889, appoint as munsifs on decent salaries, only those persons who have passed the necessary examinations. It might then entrust the work of revenue collection to assistant munsifs. The villages are badly in need of roads, schools, post offices, libraries, police stations, pounds, etc., It is a great defect in the English Government that villages should thus be neglected. As proper 'arrangements' have not been made for the efficient administration of villages, the villages are grievously suffering from wicked people. The paper requests the government to kindly enquire into these complaints and better the conditions of the villages.
Page 297, July 20th 1901, Teaching Grammar
A correspondent to the A.G. of the 20th July (received 24th September) complains that the system of teaching English Grammar is most defective. The authorities very often change the text books on grammar, only a few of them are easily intelligible. The boys are consequently very deficient in their knowledge of Grammar. Out of the many defects noticeable in such grammar, he points out one or two in Nesfield's Grammar. There is no rule pointing out the cases where capital letters should be used. Nor are there rules treating of diphthongs and syllables in the "First Two Books".
The same paper observes that, though it is a matter for congratulation that many thousands of pupils are learning English and some of them becoming proficient too, it is nevertheless very much to be regretted that large numbers of people are still illiterate that even 25 percent of the school going boys are attending the schools. Who is to blame, the paper asks, for such state of affairs? Is it the boys or the parents or the government? The government is no doubt taking much pains for the education of the people, but all their labour is being wasted. The ordinary villager is not much anxious about his education, and a taste has yet to be created for it. It is therefore necessary that the government should appoint a clever man as the village school master in every village on a salary of Rs.5 allowing him at the same time, to receive fees also from the boys. Such village schools should be inspected once a year and the incompetent school masters removed. If such a proposal be carried out, there can be no doubt that education will spread in villages. The present "Grant' system cannot work well in the cause of education. The inspecting school masters are of no use whatever. It is enough if sub-assistant inspectors are appointed to inspect at the rate of one village school a day, thus examining at least 250 such schools every year. The assistant inspectors and chief inspectors may be required one out of every twenty, and two out of every one hundred, of such village schools, respectively.
Page 343, August 17th 1901
The A.G. of the 17th August, remarks that most of the police stationhouse officers are utterly ignorant of English and are but little educated. They are not of a good character and have no sound knowledge of the rules which regulate their duties. Under these circumstances, it is desirable to make a rule that the post of station-house officer shall not be given to anybody unless he be at least a matriculate. If officers thus appointed discharge their duties satisfactorily, they should be made sub-inspectors and after the lapse of a few years and on their passing the required test they should be made inspectors. By doing so the paper hopes most of the defects in the police department will be removed.
The same paper states that the people in general do not care to report the police any offences committed within their knowledge as they believe that no benefit can be derived by doing so. The police do not work efficiently in enquiring into cases. They do not detect offenders and bring them to justice. The government as well as the heads of the police department have issued some silly rules and orders. The magistrates and judges do not care for the good of the people but are inclined to attend more to idle niceties of the law.
Page 358, August 24h 1901
The A.G. of the 24th August 1901 (received 30th August), complains that the Madras Government does not seem to care for the protection of the person and property of its subjects, of late crime has been on the increase in the district of Nellore. Dishonest subordinate officials hush up crimes without taking them to the notice of the government. About 60 or 70 persons entered the Illetigunta Agraharam (Sullurpet Division) and committed dacoity in the house of one Sivaramaiah. The paper is afraid that anarchy will soon prevail in the district if prompt steps are not taken to save the people.
Page 374, August 31st 1901, Vilukanipalli Shrotriam village
A.G., of the 31st August, 1901 complains that the Vilukanipalli (near Nellore) being a shrotriam village, is not provided with a village office establishment. The government as well as the ryots incur much loss owing to the mismanagement of the village affairs. The paper requests the Collector of Nellore to bring Act II of 1894 into force in the village and appoint village officers for it. It requires him also to get the fields closely surveyed and demarcated and to remove the many evils prevalent there.
The court of Wards Bill - A.G., of the 31st August, 1901 speaking of the Court of Wards Bill now under consideration, remarks that it contains many points, which cannot be approved of the section empowering the government to take position of any zamindari wherever it considers the proprietor thereof incompetent to manage it owing to his mental or bodily weakness, and to entrust it to the court of wards is objectionable. The government should not have so much power. In all such cases it should require a Full Bench of the High Court to decide the question and then settle the fate of the zamindari in accordance with the decision. Even when an estate is highly encumbered, the government should not act of its own accord but refer the matter to the High Court and act as it decides.
Page 381, September 7th 1901, Shrotriam village lands
A.G. of the 7th September, states that the last survey has shown 739 acres under wet and dry cultivation in the shrotriyam village of Vilukanipalli, while the old inam register recorded only 456 acres, and asked it would not be more profitable to government to get the village surveyed again. There are such 200 shrotriam villages in the Nellore district and it is not improbable that similar discrepancies exist as regards these villages also. The paper proposes that some capable and popular revenue officer should immediately be appointed to make inquires regarding the said villages. The sircar revenue will thereby be increased and the poor ryots will also get on well. If the government provides suitable means of irrigation, the ryots can willingly pay any amount of cess.
Page 397, September 14th 1901, Courts
A.G. of the 14th September, complains that the parties attending the District Munsif Court of Nellore are subjected to many difficulties as there is not a sufficient number of clerks in the court As each case is adjourned several times before it is finally disposed, of the parties incur loss in various ways. The munsif himself takes a long time to write his judgment, and it takes even a longer time to get a copy of the judgment as there is not a sufficient number of clerks. It is easy to conjecture how long it will, under the circumstances, takes to execute a decree. The paper, therefore, request the authorities concerned to appoint a few more clerks.
Page 400, Village Pounds
A.G. of the 14th September, complains that many vices are rampant in villages. It has become almost habitual with some of the wicked people amongst the villagers to drive their cattle into the fields and gardens of their neighbours for grazing, that the animals destroy the garden produce and the growing corn. It is therefore necessary that every village should be provided with a cattle pound and that it should be placed under the charge of assistant village munsif. As there is only one pound at present for four or five villages, the ryots experience much inconvenience and trouble.
A correspondent of A.G.of the 14th September, describes in a letter the famine stricken conditions of Venkatagiri, and the Editor remarks that the fields on all sides of Nellore are either lying fallow or the growing crops are withering away for want of rains.
Page 424, September 21st 1901.
The A.G. of the 21st September, opines that the case of murder of Ramalakshmi in Nabobpet, Nellore, was not properly disposed of in the Sessions Court, and remarks that in cases where the District Judge and the Jury differ, it is desirable as suggested by the Pioneer that a bench of three Judges of the High Court should try and decide such cases. Page 465, November 2nd 1901.
A pleader named Nayana Sastri writes to the A.G. of the 2nd November, complaining that the Stationary Sub Magistrate of Nellore is very short tempered and that he does not allow adjournments of cases when the pleaders or the parties request him, out of sheer necessity, to do so, while he most readily grants adjournments for the mere asking when the Police Inspector requires them.
The A.G. of the 2nd November, speaking of illiterate village munsifs, in general, writes thus:—The government does not want educated village munsifs. It is just sufficient for the government if the revenue is regularly collected and if supplies are properly made to public servants, what matters it for the government if the civil and the criminal affairs in villages be mismanaged when the welfare of the public is the sole aim of it, it would never have appointed illiterate or dishonest men to any post.
A pleader T. Nayana Sastri, describing how the village munsif of Iskapalli (near Nellore) conducted himself before the sub magistrate Nellore, when criminally prosecuted, writes thus to A.G., of the 2nd November 1901:—“when the sub magistrate asked the village munsif to read and state what the date of the summons was, he confessed that he knew not how to read, and that he was quite ignorant of accounts too and being questioned if he had taken the trouble to know the date of the summons, he replied in the affirmative, but stated that afterwards forgot everything about it. How can such an illiterate village munsif, the correspondent asks, be expected to acquit himself well in trying civil and criminal cases? How can he settle the village affairs? Such village munsifs are a source alike of discredit to the government and of evil to the people. It is therefore desirable that the Collector as well as the Deputy Collector should take immediate steps to remove the said Munsif and appoint an educated man in his sted".
Page 483, November 9th, 1901
A.G., of the 9th November (received 25th November), states that the efficiency of the municipality and the comfort of the people can not be secured where the councillors are incompetent and indifferent and the citi zens ignorant and careless. Besides paying the chairman and the secretary, it is necessary that the councillors also should be given an honorarium of at least a rupee for each sitting, just as the directors of banks are remunerated. It is also to be suggested that the members of district d taluk boards and panchayatdars of unions should be like-wise remunerated for their labour. The government fix the fees in their case. While doing so, it should be careful to appoint, and the people to elect, competent persons, liable to be certainly removed when they fail to discharge their duties with care and attention.
Page 482, November 16th 1901, Town Nuisance Act
The A.G. of the 16th November, regrets to have to ask the question whether "the Town Nuisance Act is in force in Nellore or not”. Many nuisances are being daily committed and there is nobody to punish them. The annoyance caused by beggars is indescribable. Cannot the police prosecute some of them occasionally? It is enough even if the punishments are light. The paper requests the police superintendent and the district magistrate to pay due heed to these suggestions.
Page 482, November 9th 1901
Referring to the recent charge of defalcations against the sheriastadar and sheroff of Rapur who were acquitted by the Sessions Judge of Nellore, the A.G. of the 9th November thinks it is necessary that a detection branch of the police department be separately formed soon by the government with the requisite establishment.
Page 500, November 23rd 1901.
A.G. of the 23rd November (received 14th December), deploring the inefficiency of the Nellore Municipality, regrets to say that intelligent and capable men are neither appointed nor elected as councillors. It holds the collectors responsible for not appointing, and the people themselves, for not electing, such municipal councillors.
The A.G. of the 23rd November, speaking of the prevalence of fever all over the Nellore district, complains that quinine is not available either in the post offices or with the revenue inspectors or with the tahsildars. As fever is very virulent, the paper desires that village munsifs should be entrusted with the sale of quinine in all villages.
The AG of the 23rd November, speaking of the prevalance of fever all over the Nellore District, complains that quinine is not availlble either in the post offices or with the revenue inspectors or with the tahsildars. As fever is very virulent, the paper disires that village munsifs should be entrusted with the sale of quinine in all villages.
Page 501, November 30th 1901.
A.G. of the 30th November, referring to the illiterate village munsif and two assistant munsifs of Kodur (Nellore district), desires that the government should appoint a matriculate in their sted on a pay equal to the sum of all their salaries and place as the head of revenue, civil and criminal administration of the village. If such a proposal is adopted, all disputes and quarrels, the paper says, can be settled in the village itself and the people rendered happy.
The same paper, speaking of the cattle diseases which carry off large number of cattle year after year regrets to say that the neglected condition of the cattle has largely to account for the slow development of agriculture at the present day. Since the cattle from the mainstay of the agricultural population, it is necessary that a veterinary inspector should be appointed in each taluk and be required to be travelling in the villages attending to the wealth of the cattle.
Page 510, December 14th 1901, Government Hospital, Nellore
A correspondent to A.G. of the 14th December, (received 21st December), complaining of the deficient supply of medicines and want of proper instruments in the hospitals in the Nellore district, observes that patients are put to much inconvenience, especially because the medicines that are most frequently required are out of stock. The correspondent therefore requests the district surgeon on behalf of the poor patients to provide to hospitals with the necessary medicines.
Page 38, December 21st 1901
The A.G. 21st December (received 20th January 1902) complains that the arzis submitted by the people are neither acknowledged nor replied to by the government, and requests that the authorities will be kind enough to reply to them without keeping the petitioners long in suspense.
The same paper makes the following suggestions in the matter of village administration:- that in each village a school should be established under the management of competent school master on a salary of Rs.5 per mensem; that a post office should be opened in each village and, the village school master should be made also the post master on an additional salary of Rs. 2 1/2 and, lastly, that a cattle pound should be opened in each village and the village school master in-charge of it, he being allowed half the fees collected in the pound.
Native News Paper Reports, Vol. I (January to June) - 1902
Page 38, December 28th 1901, Honorary Village Munsifs
The Editor of A.G., of the 28th December (received 20th January 1902) thinks it a matter for congratulation that the Village Munsif of Kodur (Nellore district) has been enquiring into civil and criminal cases satisfactorily, and says that, if the government is prepared to get the work done by honorary village munsifs, he can conveniently work as an honorary village munsif one day a week. He recommends that honorary village munsifs should be appointed throughout the district.
Page 40The A.G. of 28th December states that the avaricious land-lords lease out lands to the prejudice of the existing tenants just at a time when they are tilling their lands for a second crop, and questions, the Government of Madras does not care to know how the poor helpless tenants fare. When an English knowing man like himself, says the Editor, possessing a good knowledge of sircar affairs is duped and teased by the land-lords, it is easily conceivable how much more the poor, illiterate tenants suffer at their hands. He therefore requests the Government of Madras to pass the Tenancy Bill now under consideration into law without any delay and redress the grievances of the tenants.
నరసయ్య జీవితంలో ముఖ్యమైన తారీకులు
పుట్టినరోజు : 25 సెప్టెంబరు 1849 - మహర్నవమి పండుగరోజు
పుట్టిన ఊరు : మద్రాసు
మెట్రిక్యులేషను పరీక్ష పాసయిన సంవత్సరం : 1864
తండ్రి మరణం : 1866-67
మద్రాసు పచ్చయ్యప్ప ఉన్నత పాఠశాలలో ఉపాధ్యాయుడుగా : 1867
లెటర్స్ ఆన్ హిందూ మేరేజస్ ప్రచురణ : 16 మార్చి 1867
నేటివ్ అడ్వొకేట్ పత్రిక సంపాదకత్వం : 1867-69
వెంకటగిరి సంస్థానంలో ఇంగ్లీషు ట్యూటరు ఉద్యోగంలో ప్రవేశం : 1869 దీపావళి రోజు
వెంకటగిరి యూనియన్ స్కూల్లో ఉపాధ్యాయుడుగా : 1870
నెల్లూరు కలెక్టరాఫీసులో హుజూరు ట్రాన్సులేటరుగా నియామకం : 4 జనవరి 1871
నెల్లూరు పయొనీర్ పత్రిక సంపాదకత్వం : 1871-1872
నెల్లూరు సెషన్స్ కోర్టులో ఆనరరి జూరరుగా నియామకం : 17 ఫిబ్రవరి 1872
ఒంగోలు రేంజి డెప్యూటీ స్కూల్స్ ఇన్స్పెక్టరు ఉద్యోగం : 1872 - 1881
మద్రాసులో పీపుల్స్ ఫ్రెండ్ ప్రెస్సు, పీపుల్స్ ఫ్రెండ్ పత్రిక ప్రారంభం : 1వ తారీకు ఏప్రిల్ 1881
వీరేశలింగం దంపతులతో సంస్కార భోజనం : 1882
కుమారుడు రామకృష్ణయ్య జననం : 11 ఏప్రిల్ 1888
కుమారుణ్ణి అక్క మీనాక్షమ్మకు దత్తత : 1892
పీపుల్స్ ఫ్రెండ్లో కన్యాశుల్కం సమీక్ష : 21 జనవరి 1897
పీపుల్స్ ఫ్రెండ్ పత్రిక నిలిచిపోవడం : ఆగష్టు 1897
నెల్లూరు కాపురం : 1897 - 1902
కోడూరు భట్టారంవారి కండ్రిక కాపురం : 1903 నుంచి
కోడూరు కాపురం : 1906
కోడూరు గ్రామ మునసబుగిరి : 1906 జనవరి నుంచి ఏప్రిల్ చివరవరకు
వెంకటగిరి కాపురం : 1907
మరణం : 28 జూన్, 1909
భార్య రామలక్ష్మమ్మ మరణం : 1913
నరసయ్య పత్రికలమీద ఆంధ్ర సాహిత్య పరిషత్పత్త్రికలో ఒంగోలు వెంకటరంగయ్య వ్యాసం : 1922