A grammar of the Telugu language/BOOK TWELFTH

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Motto—Woodhouses Trigonometry, page 216.

The exact formulas with which the foreign treatises abound are formulce of curiosity. They are tools liner than is required for the work to be done.

Some points remain to be considered, which are interesting only to those learned natives who write in the poetical dialect. These rules are of small advantage to foreigners. In modern days even poets, as already noticed have relaxed in regard to them: but they will now be given entire without regarding whether some have already been explained or otherwise.

The ancient Telugu grammarians place these abstruse subjects immediately after remarks on the Alphabet. For they wrote only on a few disputed points to aid the judgment of poets already familiar with Sanskrit and Telugu. And as these topics can be understood only after we know every part of the grammar, and have made some progress in reading the Poems, it seems reasonable to place this chapter merely as a supplement to the Grammar.

Among living native grammarians many rely confidently on the brief rules regarding Cala and Druta, framed by Nannaya Bhatt. More learned men are less confident. Indeed Appa Cavi the Aristarchus of the language says (Book 5, 43.) "To determine regarding some words whether they are Druta or not, is an arduous task : if indeed it be at all possible (Literally, arduous even to Brauiha). In the Cavi Siro Bhushanam (see printed Essays on Telugu Literature) the critic remarks that " deviations from the rules of Cala are allowable only if poetical authority be discovered." Let this form an apology for any obscurity that may rest on the subject.

This discussion is restricted to poets alone: even those natives who read and enjoy the poems, safely neglect the abstruse rules of Cala and Druta "Andhra—Sandhi" and saral-adesam. Few will own their ignorance of these superfluous matters, but still fewer can prove their acquaintance with the principles now to be described.

It is particularly to be borne in mind that the rules for alteration of initials, for elision and for permutation though indispensible in poetry are inapplicable in common life and ought not to be used. The dialect used in talking, in common writing, and in ordinary books of morals or education, excludes these poetical customs ; unless in a few obvious words established by custom. Native critics teach the poetical dialect alone: and our native assistants inconsiderately reject the common dialect. They insist on poetical spelling, and yet will not themselves use it in common talking or writing. Thus the words «S\oos!»wjS"7v Chhandamu anaga emi ? (what is Prosody) would according to the poetical method be written T?oooWjSox"^x» Chhandamb' anangan'emi: a form which in common life is unintelligible. Mere place tho Lists of Verbals which were printed in, See page 139, 144,

Although I have used a new mode of expressing these principles, I have in the chapter on elision and permutation followed Mr. Campbell's grammar; having found, on comparison that it correctly stated all the more important rules given in the ancient philological treatises.

ON DEUTA WORDS. పుట:A grammar of the Telugu language.pdf/361 పుట:A grammar of the Telugu language.pdf/362 పుట:A grammar of the Telugu language.pdf/363 [Concluding remark on Cala and Druta] The learned assert that the rules of Cala and Druta must be followed in all compositions. But experience may lead us to dissent from this doctrine. And that for the following reasons. These rules were strictly observed by some (not all) poets in the earliest ages. Several of the most popular Telugu poets of the last and present century deviate from these rules at pleasure: even that rule is neglected which requires the final vowel U to be elided in metre: and they unscrupulously insert N to prevent elision in several places wherein rule would forbid such a convenience.

The rule regarding Cala goes on a principle that may be understood if we consider what has happened in the English language. Saxon made much use of the letter N as a termination. This is sufficiently shewn in any page of Saxon: as for instance what is given in Johnson's Dictionary.


In a few compound nouns, initial consonants are softened. Thus K becomes G as fc98Jr"ooeu the share both of the government and of the inhabitants. T becomes D as «^^& a brother fc^esSM «ii brothers #o\& father. Hence 3S«o(££>e» mother and father. Cha becomes ja. Thus ^"jS*" a young sister «|L'3^o^> akka-jellendlu, more properly « S" "T^0^. sisters. T*§ IsSiMi hands and feet more properly T»fc"fi*oo, P. becomes B. Thus "^»S?S I said. P. becomes V. Thus StoosSTgau villages and hamlets.

In all these places, we perceive the change though the reason is not obvious.* The following rules are intended to convey the

[* Native tutors are fond of insisting greatly on these changes: but so little are these rules regarded that in common MSS. of poems, the spelling is devoid of rule. E. g. in M. XV. 2. 7. 8 the word xStfT^ is spelt in these ways in various MSS. ^'7^f principles of this alteration. They are of avail to poets but are wholly superfluous to those who are not called upon to write Telugu poetry.

These rules are very rarely applied to Sanscrit words. Indeed some learned men disapprove of softening the initial in any Sanscrit word whatever. In modern Telugu poetry, they are frequently neglected even as regards Telugu words. Sanscrit Grammarians have arranged the alphabet in two classes as follows.

in which last form some grammarians wish to use-the semicircle <STM6vcK~*Q^ a refinement that never has become popular.

The hard initials 5" C fc> 3 * following the Nominative are substituted by the softening initials X & O 3. Thus S&^t&T^abS' ad becomes ^ffi&'P^iifBO the robber is going. ^StJi&'So'B becomes 55^8$fk"G3o^3 Hari is gone sii^)iSb"%rSji*he is gone noWV*&> ■^e^tffjSB becomes "csSa'S'woS'sio we wholly depend upon Rama. If two Tadbhavam words come together, as Sjsfc>«£> + Jf{&e3o*3 (for 5"ooe3o^) softening is requisite: but if the first word is Telugu, as po\%±Z&&o^a Such a change does not take place: as go(S-ff|jf:S_8 father is a king, not ^^^s&o'-^'J&ao he is Vishnu, not ■ct°«s>s-(4+<£s>!6 Such refinements are worth the attention of poets alone: a foreigner should never use the softened initial in such places.

These rules have little claim to a place in Grammar; for they more properly belong to a treatise on versification ; a subject with which we, as foreigners have no concern. It has however hitherto been the custom not only to describe them in native Grammars, but to give them a very prominent place, I would willingly omit them, were it not that the student requires to be warned that many words which occur in poems have the initial altered. Thus the word B^jt) chepputa to say, is often spelt "S^4-> jepputa and even "7>*;y*J and even Sepputa.

It is obvious that these niceties, though important to poets are of no use to men who study a language only with a view to public business. Even among the poets themselves, there is some discrepancy of opinion. For these changes are regulated rather by taste than by any fixed rule. (See page 41.)


Some Sanscrit mahat nouns (see page 31, 221) M Tt»6»jso Ramudu (a well known proper name) can in poetry form the accusative by dropping or else by substituting P. Thus "o^£» r'Saa or ms»p§^Qt>d they honoured Rama. And though "O'sfco ends in TJ, the form x^sSx^ is not admissible.

This mode flf contraction is peculiar to poetry : wherein it frequently occurs. It is only applicable to Tatsaina Sanscrit words.

(DiJaSciQ -3&$t> jSo«o« p0^3

Here the words S'okSs and are in the accusative singular.

Nouns ending in iyamu as sS»J*cs5!S», muttiyamu, a pearl, may contract this into sSx>j|:S» muttemu, or into sS»45gsio muttyamu. And nouns in iya as x5%<ss (a poetical name for damsel) may contract this into

Some Sanscrit and some Telugu words may drop the final even when compounded with Telugu words. Thus ?jr<sss&> fear

zp'oSi^ixiAj to frighten or p)X"5&> half •£x"3cxugs^tfc> mid

night : or the hour of half night.

In poetry, the phrase Sfr^sb by dropping the vowel u, becomes S


Few of the following rules are used unless by those who have occasion to write in Telugu verse. For this reason, I have placed them at the end of the grammar.

When an open vowel occurs, that is when a short final vowel is followed by a word beginning with a vowel, either the final vowel is dropped, or some consonant is inserted to prevent such a change. In regard to (Sandhi,) elision, the Sanskrit vowels »» Eu, and »xr» Ru are considered as consonants: but require no notice.

The words already described as druta require the insertion of N (as happens in Greek, or an for the article in English :) but other words insert Y in certain places. Either elision is required or else the insertion of a specified letter to prevent elision is prescribed : there is very little room for option.

The final short U, as ^sfc, «,'4)&> &c. being always subject to elision, it is not allowed to insert N, or Y, to prevent this. పుట:A grammar of the Telugu language.pdf/369 పుట:A grammar of the Telugu language.pdf/370 పుట:A grammar of the Telugu language.pdf/371 పుట:A grammar of the Telugu language.pdf/372 పుట:A grammar of the Telugu language.pdf/373 పుట:A grammar of the Telugu language.pdf/374 పుట:A grammar of the Telugu language.pdf/375 పుట:A grammar of the Telugu language.pdf/376 పుట:A grammar of the Telugu language.pdf/377 పుట:A grammar of the Telugu language.pdf/378 పుట:A grammar of the Telugu language.pdf/379