A grammar of the Telugu language/BOOK SEVENTH
SYNTAX OF THE TELUGU VERB.
The following Table exhibits the principal parts of those Telugu Verbs which have been already conjugated. పుట:A grammar of the Telugu language.pdf/253 పుట:A grammar of the Telugu language.pdf/254 పుట:A grammar of the Telugu language.pdf/255 పుట:A grammar of the Telugu language.pdf/256 పుట:A grammar of the Telugu language.pdf/257
- Virgil uses penetrabile for penetrans; Or. 1. 93. Mb. X. 481.
f In the Greek verb the active and passive senses are sometimes undistinguished. In English we sometimes use the passive for tbe active. Thus we say 'they were gone': meaning ' they had gone.' In Shakespeare (In Romeo, 4. 2.) Juliet says "lecomed love" for becoming. And the foot note says, ' One participle for the other ; a frequent practice with our author.' C. P. Brown's Telugu Grammar. E e
This happens in other oriental languages. But Telugu has no separate word for ' yes' or 'no.' Compare Genesis xlii. 11, and xliv. 28.
Some interjections are used in conversation, to express yes! Thus C9-sr°aha or (tree- aye, aye! Elsewhere some nouns are used to denote reverence : as «mb or aj^escsfir^ yes sir, (your pleasure !)or which bears the same meaning. The words 'the same!' 'the very thing !* 1^6 < right!' s&>8 1 ayey T'Z&oSa < why not?' are also used.
An easy hum or grunt, mh, mh, with a shake of the head "Humph," denotes ' No.' In the negative the lips are closed: but in the affirmative 'aha' the lips are not closed.
ON THE DIFFERENCE BETWEEN
"Vfe Xadv And "3s£> Ledu.
The verb t?$t> < to become' connects two nominative cases : or a nominative and an adjective, as w©?5^6 T*efc it is not mine KiljjiSiD «fco-aQ"B-"a£> the horse is not a good one. So5|_ Pearson's a dog is not a lion. Here we see two nominative cases connected.
The verb &ot£>b 'to dwell' always implies a locative; in a place, or at a time. Thus sees," 'is he at home?' is he
alive? <&F^ie*> (lit.' he is') yes. ~^^> he is not. This locative is often understood, not expressed.
Kadu denotes kind, quality, or condition; Ledu denies ' life' and 'locality.'
Thus much is sufficient for the learner: but after some progress has been made in the language the following statements will be found useful. Meantime he may pass by these rules without perusal.
The verb Ledu is the Negative Aorist of &o«oio 1 To Be, dwell, remain': and is also the negative Aorist of £vc7&&> 'to be or accrue.' it is, it is not. The affirmative is 'soar, con పుట:A grammar of the Telugu language.pdf/260 పుట:A grammar of the Telugu language.pdf/261 పుట:A grammar of the Telugu language.pdf/262 పుట:A grammar of the Telugu language.pdf/263 పుట:A grammar of the Telugu language.pdf/264 పుట:A grammar of the Telugu language.pdf/265 పుట:A grammar of the Telugu language.pdf/266 పుట:A grammar of the Telugu language.pdf/267
[The verb ««ot> t to become' retains this form ««o in poetry, bearing the same sense as tJocujs Thus tightly, for s S"^c«jfS sfc^sfe her lovely face ]
ON IRREGULAR VERBAL NOUNS.
It has been seen that the Infinitive is a noun. Thus from to to dance or play is derived S3-£££«S» 1 dancing,' 'playing' (saltatio, ludus.) This is a regular form. But there is an irregu^ lar form which equally means ' a play, a game.'
The phrase * Irregular is objectionable:' but it is the only word in use for " the minor portion; the smaller number." According to their principles all these are quite regular.
The Regular forms, already exhibited, as C3-<5#5£», 69-iSb A> are common to all verbs: but some have peculiar verbals.
To exemplify this in English: To arrive 'To receive' 'to contrive,' make 'arriving' 'receiving,' 'contriving' which are regular: and 'arrival' 'reception,' '■contrivance' which are irregular. And in words of Saxon origin, 'To Live, to Grow, to Die,' make 'Living, growing, dying,' which are regular, and 'life, growth, death,' which are irregular. [Thus in Greek f^w, Xtyw, wpaaau, have the derivatives *p«"c> Xt&s, vpuUs-]
These Irregular nouns form a convenient vocabulary of words పుట:A grammar of the Telugu language.pdf/269 పుట:A grammar of the Telugu language.pdf/270 పుట:A grammar of the Telugu language.pdf/271 పుట:A grammar of the Telugu language.pdf/272 పుట:A grammar of the Telugu language.pdf/273 పుట:A grammar of the Telugu language.pdf/274 పుట:A grammar of the Telugu language.pdf/275 పుట:A grammar of the Telugu language.pdf/276 పుట:A grammar of the Telugu language.pdf/277 పుట:A grammar of the Telugu language.pdf/278 పుట:A grammar of the Telugu language.pdf/279