A grammar of the Telugu language/BOOK FOURTH
ON THE VERB.
All verbs appear in my Dictionaly in the Infinitve form, ending in Ta. Thus pamputa to send caduvuta to reed.
The first and second conjugations contain chiefly verbs that originate in Telugu :* the third, (besides numerous native verbs) embraces all verbs derived from Sanskrit, Hindustani and other languages.
A verb may change out of one conjugation into another: thus ^csSoti chey-uta ending in T is of the 2d conjugation. But in its Causal shape TScxuotfcAj cheyinguta it becomes a verb of the 3d conjugation: and in its passive shape ^3c»smso£j it is a verb of the 1st conjugation. And the same changes take place in almost every verb.
Verbs ending in *& are of the 3d conjugation ; thus 3 *%*J. Some of these have the liberty of changing ■* 911 into ^v ppu thus a^£*J which falls within the 1st Conjugation. This will be afterwards explained. Thus the termination of the Boot alone shows the conjugation.
Certain changes made in the root make the participles n' and then by adding personal affixes with some particles, the tenses are made. Thus from ^cs&j makes the past p|| » 9 chest having done: and from this comes ^f^So chesinadu, he did, "So^JSo teccinadu, he brought, ^ok^^o pampinadu, he sent. Again ^ F0^ chesinanu I did, "30^t»js> teecinanu, I brought, *JoS>F°;ai pampinanu I sent. Here the terminations are uniform, though the verbs belong to three different conjugations. »■
These personal affixes are the same in all verbs whatever • both active and passive just as have, had, hast, are equally applicable to all English verbs. Accordingly if we know the affixes of one verb, we know those of all. And (as in English, Latin or French) it often is sufficient to mention the first person of a
• Many of these are likewise found in the Kannada language which appears to be more ancient than Telugu.
tense, because all the rest of the persons merely change the termination according to one rule.
There are properly only two voices : the affirmative and negative. The Passive voice is compounded with పడుట to fall: the Middle voice with కొనుట to take: and the Causal voice inserts ఇంచు incu. But all the terminations continue unchanged. Thus (as in English) the Passive uses the active endings.
The tenses of the verb are Present, Past, Future, Aorist and the Imperative.
The numbers are the Singular and the Plural; and the persons* are the first, second, and the third. In the Singular, the third person feminine has the neuter termination, but it takes masculine terminations in the plural.
Principal Parts Of The Verb.
These are the Boot, the Infinitives, and the Participles. The Boots end in ft}] "U" పంపు pampu, 'send,' పోవు povu, 'go;' to which by adding *J (the infinitive sign To) as పంపుట, పోవుట,the verbs to send, to go, are formed: as they appear in the Dictionary.
The Root (ధాతువు) has been differently defined by various writers. Some say that పంపుట pampu-ta is formed from పంపు pampu, adding ట ta. Others say (with the author of the Dipica) that the root is aboig) pampu. Others exhibit the verb as పంపడము pamp-adamu: but the oldest authors quote verbs in one form of the third person singluar past tense of the verb : పంపె pampe,
- when we converse with a native who know Sancrit but not English we must remember that I, We, are called ఉత్తమపురుష; Thou, You, are called మధ్యమ పురుష; and He, she, it, they are called ప్రథమపురుష, the first person.
The following roots are included in the First conjugation which contains more than half the verbs in the language.
} The following roots are included in the First conjugation which contains more than half the verbs in the language.
ఏలుట to rule తోలుట to drive, ఆడుగుట to ask, తొక్కుట to tread, అమ్ముట to sell, పెరుగుట to grow, దుముకుట to leap, మండుట to flame, పడుట to fall to play ఆడుట to speak,పలుకుట to mount, పాడుట to sing, అనుట to say, తిరుగుట to walk వినుట to hear, కొనుట to buy.
traction tsoi&f-, tj&£r~ pampan, gaduvan, which by a further contraction become s^Ocfe, iJs&sSpampa, gaduva. It appears however reasonable to look upon this NO or N as an affix not affecting the sense. Certain affixes change the sense of the Moot in A. The letter is also added as "A"*, 15 is£~ir> pampa ga, gadavaga.
This is at pleasure spelled ^os&ot^ *fiei>&a-TC° pampanga, gaduvanga. It is also called the adverbial form.
The Inf. in *J TA adds the letter to to the Root ; thus out of &°^>) comes &o-4)te pamputa: and the Inf. in -53 E'DI changes the final D of the Root into -53 : thus out of &o$) comes a&° pampedi.
The Infinitives in TA and DAMU are declined as nouns: Thus ^Jo^Jij is a noun of the third declension : and &o&££n is a noun of the second declension. Some call them verbal nouns.
The Participles in the affirmative Verb are the present, the past, the relative and the aorist. I shall use the sign P|| or p|] for the word Participle. The present p|| is made by adding to the Root or 8b; thus doty makes ^o^)^ or a&o-^So. To these the affix (out of the auxiliary verb &ot&) is also added: thus sfio^tt)^ pampug-unnu and &oi£)&>&y^pampiit-%mmt sending. But and being used chiefly in poetry, the
colloquial shapes Si and Sbrfcj. alone are exhibited in the following pages.
Verbs that end in *s> T'T'IJ as 'to strike' "S>*»*> ' to
place' S^3*0 ' to revile or abuse' can in the present participle and past tense change TTU into a&Sb or ;thus r'Cfcgj or rv& and the past tense §"*438 or or §"*
The past p|| is formed by changing the final U of the Root in to "0" "I:" thus out of Acid) pampu comes pampi having sent.
If a verb has three syllables, and the second is short TJ, as t» «SbXb adugu, (to ask) tfs&^i caduvu to read, S&ifc carugu to bite, Z&fa cariigu to melt; this U changes into I when the termination changes into C), S (I, e, e): this happens in the past p|| the 3d pers. sing, of the past tense, and one aorist p|[. Thus tJSa cadivi (having read) ^adive he read, and KQ"^ e,adive, who
And these verbs have also the liberty of changing the middle \) U into «/ a when the final vowel D of the Root ends in «^ a: thus iJifcsS gaduva or £T«sS ^adava to read.
The Relative participle is formed by adding if NA to the past participle: thus froin<*>o?j pampi having sent comes a>o&j4 pomp" na that sent.
The aorist participle is derived from the Root either by using the root itself; or changing the final \) (U) of it into -G, (e, eti) or-=>«& or (Sdu, edi): thus, *o*6); sSJoti^o^d, a&c'Sjjo, Zoloft that sends.
The tenses are formed by adding the personal terminations to the root or else to the present and past participles.
[The following rules on formation, marked with inverted commas ['] in the margin, were framed by a native tutor in the College. They may perhaps be useful to those who study Telugu in Europe: these principles may be occasionally referred to when a doubt arises. Such as read the language in India will seldom require these rules: which will be easily acquired without being studied in this method.) పుట:A grammar of the Telugu language.pdf/121
send not, but one shape of the past tense changes \) (U) into O) (I) Thus 3&OS.8 They sent.
'Neuter SD from «a and They, these things. For the pres. tense as 601^)80^3 they send and for one shape of the past tense, as jS3 they sent.
'|sj For one shape of the past tense as ^o-^,S> they sent, and for the affirmative aorist as £o*&)ffc they will send.
'2 For the future tense as ?6o^5p, aio^f), *oip they will send.
'For the neg. aorist as J6o*^j they will not send.
'These terminations take before them certain intermediate particles to make the affirmative tenses; and are added either to the root or to the present and past participles. Thus,
'In the pres. tense —0 a is inserted for the 1st and 2d persons in the sing, and plu. For the masc. in the 3d pers. sing, and for the Masc. and fem. in 3d pers. plu. while is inserted for the fern, and neut. in the 3d pers. sing, and for the neut. in the 3d pers. plu.
'In the 1st shape of the past tense is inserted for the 1st and 2d pers. sing, and plu. while -=> El interposes for the masc. fem. and neut. in the 3d pers. sing, and for the neut, in the 3d pers. plu. And in the 2d shape W' is inserted for the 1st and 2d persons sing, and plu. and for the masc. in the 3d pers. sing., and for the masc. and fem. in the 3d pers. plu. while if interposes for the fem. and neut. in the 3d pers. sing, and for the neut. in the 3d pers. plu.
'In the 1st shape of the future tense -=S E*DA is inserted for
the 1st and 2d persons sing, and plu. and for the masc. and fem.
in the 3d pers. plu. while -=>^ EDI is interposed for the masc.
fem. and neut. in the 3d pers. sing, and for the neut. in the 3d
pers. plu. And in the 2d shape —£ E' is inserted for the 1st and
2d persons in the sing, and plu. and for the masc. and fem. in the 3d pera. plu. while S or £) (ET) is interposed for all genders in the 3d pers. plu.
'In the Aorist is inserted for the 1st and 2d persons sing, and plu. and for the masc and fem, in the 3d pers. plu. But for the masc. fern, and neut. in the 3d pers. sing, and for the neat, in the 3d pers. plu. no particles are inserted.
'When these particles are connected with the personal terminations, they stand thus:
'1st pers. —°<& anu 1st pers. —°&> amu
2d —°$ avu 2d —°t6 aru
3d Mass. —°&> adu 3d m. f. —°& aru
3d f n. tfoP or oS nnadi, 3d n. ?S^p nnavi. ndi.
'The Negative Verb is derived from the Root in A, and by adding certain affixes to this, the Negative participles, the Verbal noun, and the aorist with the imperative are formed.
'Thus i£o£ which is the Root in A of *o^t> takes the affix T K to form the "negative p|| in KA" as *os&5" without sending.
'And to this [the Eoot in A of &ojfc&] is at pleasure
added. Thus 5606? and sSoafcSootf equally mean without sending.
'Likewise the Root in A. adds the affixes NI to form the Nog. rel. p|| and g» Mi to form the verbal noun. Thus atos&p pampani that did not send, and &o&sx> the not sending.
'In the Negative verb, the aorist is the only tense, and it is formed simply by adding to the Boot in A the pronominal affixes already explained. Thus;
11st pers. &o&&> 1st pers. a&o<£&a
2d Q) 2d *
3d M. «S 3d m. f. <&
3d /. m. & 3d n. '«
'To form the Negative imperative, (the Prohibitive) the Root in A takes the affixes if Ka or & KU or Kumu or 5is£r»
Kuma or S>&r° Kumee for the 2d pers. sing, as ai'oa&S' or £io<£2o or 8&o*5osto <6oa&sosSr» or a&oS&SS&r* Send not thou, and 'oh Kandi or Kudu or &h Kudeefor the 2d pers. plu. as a&os&S'oa or sboa&sSKS or a&oa&Soci send not ye
'Elsewhere instead of these forms, the verb sSexs&iiJ is used. Thus as in the aflir. verb fciStSoaSsSe^jSa means (il fant remettio) you must send, so in the negative, the verb test), or ssg- may be added. Thus s6o;6^g> do not send, thou shalt not send.'
The passages here marked with (') inverted commas may be occasionally referred to, if a doubt should arise; but those who study in India will not require these rules.
For the purpose of exhibiting the terminations, the verb &ot£) pamputa To send will now be conjugated throughout. This
is a regular verb of this conjugation.
Also i5s£$S)4j to read, because it is a verb of three syllables and
undergo some changes in the formation of tenses, as was already
Also the verbs S>#>*j vinu-ta, To hear §~*ffci> Eonu-ta to buy and *«ot>padu-ta to fall. These are given because verbs ending in NU and DU are contracted in a peculiar way.
Also the verb is^^t* povu-ta to go because that has some peculiarities. And to these will be added the Irregular Auxiliary Verbs 6oj&4j to dwell; to become; 5"exKo*J, to occur.
Infinitive in TA a&o^k To send.
Infinitive in A )6crtfi
Infinitive in Damu ;6oi6£jS»
Infinitive in EVDI *°^s.
Pres. pH s&o^jjao or S&o^a&iSyL Sending Past p|| Having sent
Rel. p|| *°*>iS Which sent
Aorist p|| «, s£ot.t3, shots& or ^osjs, a&o^J Which sends.
way by adding *b; M a,3>aa; or by changing the f& into O sunna as S>oH>, Or when they take they change into cSa as Sola. Likewise in the past tense aj&Op becomes aoASp. In the affirmative aorist affcsfcffa becomes aos&ffc. la the 2d and 3d person plural aj&<&&becomes £>os&5> or &o\&> ■ vulgarly a°#)Here the soft D changes into hard D. The form o\ifc is used only in poetry. Thus wolao. M. XIV. 2. 94. and 2. 169.
Some grammarians direct us to write these verbs with if N, not with O. Thus aotfc becomes But this.is a refinement ap
proved only by grammarians; not by the people at large.
The verbs to hear, «ffa^ to go, a&«6*-> to fall, ^Scij
to be spoiled, tfxo&j to fit, to descend &c. change at pleasure the affix-= into in forming thepast and future tenses.
Thus a"j3fS> or aPaoi*; and a?«i& or ajSo&ssfSo. And they have also the liberty of being contracted in the relative participle. Thus 3PiS or SjS^., *&fS or and or Many verbs ending
in a NO and £&) DU (as mentioned above) contract the second shape of the past tense. Thus apF*fk becomes aF^.?k, d&Tftb becomes BT**fS>. పుట:A grammar of the Telugu language.pdf/134 పుట:A grammar of the Telugu language.pdf/135 పుట:A grammar of the Telugu language.pdf/136 పుట:A grammar of the Telugu language.pdf/137
The verb r*;S>4j as the sign of the middle voice deviates somewhat from the regular verb i""ffc*j to take or buy. The middle voice is thus conjugated. The irregular portions are marked fHf3
But in the middle voice this verb is often written 33&k> kunuta instead of $~°t&>&> konuta.
General Note. In all verba it is hard to express the Infinitives and Participles in English, without misleading the learner. The true import is explained in the Syntax. పుట:A grammar of the Telugu language.pdf/139 పుట:A grammar of the Telugu language.pdf/140 పుట:A grammar of the Telugu language.pdf/141 పుట:A grammar of the Telugu language.pdf/142 పుట:A grammar of the Telugu language.pdf/143 This verb is sometimes pronounced :and accordingly belongs
to the 3d Conjugation. This is an ancient form. But in modern days it is considered obsolete and is avoided by educated persons.t The following instances are found in various poems. ^^■Efo,pr»>j£$Sj DRAyo. 384. gOoSo-Bo-pr^S^ D. B. Y. 2248. r -jT^tfsSM we have Seen SpT^SiSn we have heard. B. VIII. 445 పుట:A grammar of the Telugu language.pdf/145 పుట:A grammar of the Telugu language.pdf/146 పుట:A grammar of the Telugu language.pdf/147 పుట:A grammar of the Telugu language.pdf/148 పుట:A grammar of the Telugu language.pdf/149 పుట:A grammar of the Telugu language.pdf/150 పుట:A grammar of the Telugu language.pdf/151 పుట:A grammar of the Telugu language.pdf/152 పుట:A grammar of the Telugu language.pdf/153 పుట:A grammar of the Telugu language.pdf/154 పుట:A grammar of the Telugu language.pdf/155 పుట:A grammar of the Telugu language.pdf/156
This contains verbs the root of which ends in YU OR YYU which is changeable into or . Thus cheyuta or పుట:A grammar of the Telugu language.pdf/158 In the Imperative the root of verbs of two syllables changes <sfij into *». Thus from 35 comes x3°» or •Bowg do thou. In other respects it presents no novelty.
The present p|| is formed by adding to the root in U as ^5txfi» or by changing csfijtf) into Thus 35]^ doing. So also in the past tense ^Sp, I did, thou didst, become iS
...t, a &c.
The letter ^ being pronounced ts as ^cs&t* cMyutsu, these letters change places in forming chestu. ,
The letter S is written either $ or "?> or * at pleasure. And as the initial is frequently is softened into » or the word 35* (having done) may at pleasure be written or "rat.
Some learned men wish to discard $ (the santi-sacaram) and substitute the ^ (or sulabha-sacaram) in every place: but this is a refinement that never will generally be countenanced. Some places alone of the second conjugation admit the (santi) ¥ whereas all may use the $ (sulabha). A few accurate scholars who wish to exclude $ (santi) altogether declare (with the grammarian Appa Cavi) that this letter # (Siva) ought to be used in Sanscrit words alone. But in the common mode of spelling some places admit one letter, some the other, and some both: this is unobjectionable : and is countenanced by the oldest manuscripts, and by nearly all the soundest scholars: for even among the learned a few alone wish for any peculiarities in spelling. The difference indeed is as trifling as between the French words avait and avoit; allais, and allots ; disais and disois : and the matter deserves notice only because our native instructors are apt to dwell much on such trifling points and condemn the use of the (Siva) $ though themselves use it daily.
In apology for this inconsistency they alledge that all persons (themselves included) are in the wrong and they urge us there ore to write in a manner which has no advantage to compensate for its peculiarity.
The following, as well as the other verbs which belong to this conjugation proceed according to the rules given above.
The ancient grammarians might have reasonably defined the verbs of the second conjugation as ending both in Y and in S.
Of the verbs here given the first three are quite regular. Valayu 'must' is irregular. The next &&<3&>i> is slightly irregular and the two last are peculiar in changing TT into SS (thus U^c**0^ to split p|! U^?$) whereas other verbs though they use IT at pleasure, do not use SS. Thus r*a&k> or S^csfcgt) to cut: p|| 6"°f> never r")).The conjugation will now be given at full length, although it uses precisely the same terminations as are used in the first conjugation: the only deviations are in the radical syllables which have now been given. పుట:A grammar of the Telugu language.pdf/162 పుట:A grammar of the Telugu language.pdf/163 పుట:A grammar of the Telugu language.pdf/164 పుట:A grammar of the Telugu language.pdf/165 పుట:A grammar of the Telugu language.pdf/166 పుట:A grammar of the Telugu language.pdf/167 పుట:A grammar of the Telugu language.pdf/168
The Passive Verb is formed by adding to suffer to the Infin. in A of any verb ; the initial P being softened becomes B. Thus from the passive forms are as follows,
As afcjfci* 'to fall' has already been conjugated, we need not here give more than the first person.
Some intransitive verbs can at pleasure adopt a passive form. Thus from &o&to 'Be' &oUwxsj*e& (a rustic phrase) he was, &c. So in English, we say he is gone, he was gone (which are Passive forms) instead of has gone, had gone.
Some parts of the verb S>;6«iSb4-> to be heard are commonly used in the active sense, as 3j4w«o&rr^jj& I am heard, S;S»&Qp I was heard for S>o&»7r^jS> and &o£p I hear and I have heard.
Further details will be given in the syntax.
ON CHANGE OE CONJUGATION.
It has been seen that the verb &&>&> to fall is the sign of the passive voice in all verbs. It belongs to the first Conjugation and accordingly in the passive voice all verbs fall under this conjugation.
And the causal voice ends in cu. Accordingly whenever a verb, whatever its conjugation uses the causal voice ending in cu, it appertains to the third Conjugation.
The verb L?r»cs65 vrayu to write is originally of the 2d conjugation ending in Tu: but its passive is (jr-aawssbii which belongs to the first Conjugation and its causal is l_sr»ouot& which belongs to the third. Accordingly verbs are merely distinguished as ending in cu, yu, tu &c. without any note of Conjugation.
THE CAUSAL VOICE.
Having now gone through all the various conjugations and the irregular verbs, it is requisite to notice some forms which are applicable to all verbs :- some other forms will be noticed in the Syntax. Indeed they all appertain to the construction of sentences. పుట:A grammar of the Telugu language.pdf/194 పుట:A grammar of the Telugu language.pdf/195 పుట:A grammar of the Telugu language.pdf/196 పుట:A grammar of the Telugu language.pdf/197